Eid al-Fitr 2016

Determining the beginning of Eid al-Fitr caused confusion among the Muslim countries this year again. In Turkey it is celebrated on Tuesday 5th of July, although it will be on Wednesday 6th of July  in Saudi Arabia and some other countries.

The Presidency of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Turkey applies the correct regulations in the way that Qur’an shows. While Qur’an commands making observations about the times of prayer, It leaves the calculations about Lunar Calendar to groups of scientists. The Almighty Allah commands:


The sun and the moon follow a reckoning. (Rahman 55:5)

It is He Who made the sun to be a source of light and the moon to be a reflector of light, and He who measured out stages for it (the sunlight); that you might know the count of years and the calculation. Nowise did Allah create this but pointing out the truth and righteousness. Does He explain His Signs in detail, for a group of people who know. (Jonah 10:5)

Since there were no scientists to do the calculations during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.), he enjoined as follows being the only way out:

“We are an illiterate community; do not know to calculate or write. We know that a month takes either 29 or 30 days”

“Begin fastening when you see the Crescent (of Ramadan), begin the Eid when you see the Crescent (of Shawwal). If it is cloudy, complete the current month to thirty.”

Nowadays, there are enough of scientists to be able to compute the motion and reckoning of the moon and sun. The accurate principles were set at the International Crescent Conference held in 1978 led by The Presidency of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Turkey. Since then, the calendars based on the apparition of crescent have been prepared by the cooperative studies of astronomers and Islamic scholars.

The Shawwal Crescent, implying the start of Eid al-Fitr, is viewed with the naked eye. On 4th July, in the west of Chile, in Isla Santa Maria the Sun set at 18:08, and the Moon set at 18:37. Since the Moon was 6 degrees above the Sun, the Crescent (new moon) was visible to the naked eye.

Relevant technical information is as follows:
Isla Santa Maria

Latitude -22.4 degrees
Longitude 70.6 degrees west.
Sun 6 degrees below the horizon.

(Information obtained from Prof. Dr. Adnan ÖKTEN, Istanbul University Department of Astronomy Sciences)

Observing the crescent is not ordered in any of the verses. On the opposite, “determining via calculations made by a group of people who know”, is desired. In the ages when such groups were not found, our Prophet applied the only possible solution by counting on the naked eye observations. Carrying out this method at our century is neither understandable nor acceptable.

With best regards…

Prof. Dr. Abdulaziz Bayındır

İ.Ü. Faculty of Divinity Professor
Süleymaniye Foundation – Center of Research on Religion and Nature

Facebook'ta PaylaşTwitter'da Paylaş
Date: Jul 4, 2016
Other Fatwas In This Category:
#   Title Date Reads 
1 Muslims Today 2015.11.03 1,744
2 Method to Understand Quran 2010.12.28 1,456
3 Did any fatwas come from Madhhab’s Imams about candle nights? 2012.02.06 448
4 Does Islam provide freedom of religion? 2013.03.04 761
5 Sects 2013.07.07 861
6 Intercession of prophets 2014.03.23 835
7 Introduction 2009.09.04 762
8 Kitabi Tahrif 2009.09.17 887
9 What is the ruling on taking drugs that include alcohol? 2011.09.11 530
10 Interest 2013.03.26 702
11 Should women cook for their husbands? 2013.07.01 14,483
12 Punishment For Apostasy In Islam 2014.05.17 1,737
13 Common Belief Mistakes – Preface 2010.09.06 802
14 Did The Jews Swear To Rebel? 2009.09.17 625
15 Do rich people have priority over poor people to get into the Garden 2013.01.21 535
16 Is Islam a religion of war, or peace? 2013.03.05 1,270
17 Does vomiting break the fast? 2013.06.22 8,393
18 Beginning of Ramadan -2017 2017.05.23 1,629
19 Religiousness in Quran 2009.09.07 892
20 Shortening of Ajal 2010.10.13 2,257
21 Is a convert responsible for the prayers he missed? 2013.05.25 610
22 What is the meaning of “people that your right hands possess”? 2013.04.15 4,337
23 The penalty of breaking a fast 2013.06.20 5,127
24 Touching and Reciting Qur’an Without Ablution or Ghusl 2016.03.30 9,934
25 Tesbih And Takdis 2009.09.07 1,331
26 Duty of the Intercessor 2010.09.25 733
27 Abrogation (Naskh) and Stoning Punishment (Rajm) 2011.10.30 2,017
28 Religion Difference in Marriage 2013.06.10 980
29 Dowry 2013.06.15 2,644
30 Nabi and Rasul According to The Qur’an and Traditional Islam 2014.12.14 4,477
31 Who Goes to Heaven 2009.09.07 2,101
32 Intercession 2009.09.17 1,012
33 Will Jesus Return to Earth? 2017.06.08 2,369
34 Wearing scarf while reciting Quran 2012.09.07 1,363
35 False Roots of Fatalism in Islam – Destiny and Measure 2013.08.03 2,057
36 Deifying The Prophets 2015.11.01 1,630
37 The Religions 2009.09.07 955
38 Questioning Sentences 2009.10.13 725
39 Spouses of Different Religions 2016.11.08 4,440
40 Women Travelling Alone 2013.08.26 3,181
41 Istikhara 2013.09.01 1,347
42 Is Five Times Prayer Mentioned in the Quran? 2016.06.13 4,291
43 Explanation of the verses 11-16 in surah al-Hajj 2009.09.07 3,497
44 Violence Against Women 2010.10.20 2,259
45 Is there a special form of worship to perform in the month of Muharram? 2017.09.22 1,275
46 Working of women 2017.07.05 3,940
47 Does Islam Focus on Men? 2013.11.23 516
48 CAPTIVITY, SLAVERY & CONCUBINAGE ACCORDING TO THE QUR’AN 2017.05.27 960
49 Munafiq – Hypocrite 2009.09.07 3,317
50 Friday Prayer – Salat of Juma 2009.10.13 1,444
51 What is the ruling on fasting the Ashura Day? 2017.09.24 2,518
52 Supervision in marriage 2013.08.07 846
53 Hadith 2013.12.08 1,040
54 Sealing of Hearts 2017.05.18 416
55 Kafir (pl:Kuffar) – Concealer 2009.09.07 1,668
56 Fidyah of the Ramadan Fast 2016.06.15 3,758
57 Does shopping on Ashura increase abundance? 2013.01.03 943
58 Getting the period while fasting 2013.08.05 4,465
59 Places of Worship 2013.12.14 1,177
60 The Traits That Make The Human, Human 2009.09.07 636
61 Iftidaa – Women’s Right to Divorce 2009.10.13 1,151
62 The responsibility of one who is not informed of the Message 2013.02.04 764
63 Compensation of unfulfilled fasting duties 2013.07.30 1,263
64 Combining of prayers 2014.01.01 1,850
65 The Situation Of Those Who Don’t Use Their Reason 2014.08.03 1,594
66 Marriage Testimony 2009.10.13 936
67 Are scholars successors of prophets? 2013.02.06 537
68 Zakat and Fidya in Ramadan 2013.07.29 1,964
69 Bid’ah 2014.01.08 1,150
70 Being Responsible For Your Thoughts 2014.01.17 1,363
71 Testimony Of Women 2009.10.13 1,427
72 What is the ruling of hudud law if we live in secular country? 2013.02.17 713
73 Fasting without major ablution (ghusl) 2013.07.29 4,003
74 Prayer of The Traveler 2014.01.08 1,954
75 Basmala 2015.10.11 1,209
76 The Saturday Prohibition 2009.09.07 5,292
77 Fasting Prolonged At Least Forty Minutes in Turkey 2010.08.20 1,838
78 Is terrorism part of Islam? 2013.02.17 1,373
79 Paying a fee instead of fasting? 2013.07.28 3,601
80 The purpose of iddah 2014.01.29 4,700
81 Christianity Today 2015.11.04 1,215
82 Baqara – Sacrificial Bull Issue 2010.11.04 1,356
83 Eid al-Fitr 2016 2016.07.04 1,375
84 Marriage without an authority (Wali) 2013.02.24 1,445
85 Are extremely hot and long days an excuse for not fasting? 2013.07.25 1,975
86 Mentioning God’s name while slaughtering animals 2014.03.07 1,356
87 Praise And Thanksgiving 2015.11.08 1,165
88 Relation Between Sleep and Death 2014.11.07 9,898
89 Period of zakat 2015.08.14 1,781
90 What about the missed worship before Islam? 2010.09.25 602
91 Fasting of women during menstruation periods 2017.04.25 4,573
92 Women in prayers 2014.03.16 2,593