Religiousness in Quran

 ‘Din’- religion- is an Arabic word derived from the root ‘deyn’, which morphologically is a noun or an infinitive suffix. Jawhari gives three definitions for the term ‘din’; practice and condition, punishment and reward, and finally submission concluding that the last is what ‘din’-the religion- is[1].

Ragib claimed that ‘din’ encounters both the meanings; reward and submission. While Ibn Mansour had added account and Islam to the previous ones concluding that ‘deyn’ was the infinitive suffix while ‘din’ itself was a noun[2].

Zebidi beside the verses and the hadiths illustrating his claim with a number of Arabic poems as evidence stated that the word ‘din’ had more than twenty meanings but the specific term encountered two different meanings as mentioned before[3].  

The translator Asim Efendi mentioned thirty meanings referring to the word ‘din’. The ones that closely refer to the term ‘din’ -as religion- are; punishment and reward, Islam, custom and practices, obedience,account, dominion, Triumph, sovereignty, kingship, rule, decree, pleasure giving ibadet, population, Sheri’a, submission[4] 

Between all the given meanings of the word ‘din’ two are the meanings that come first in all the translations and explanations; submission and reward[5]. Obedience toward various powers might lead in awaiting a reward. The power someone obeys in a religion is the supreme power, so to be divine. The idolized divinity of every religion promises a reward for those who obeys him and his rules.
 
The first religion is the religion Allah taught Adam and he instructed his children with. This is the followed order that started with the first Prophet to finish with the last one. The Glorified Allah commands: “Then set your face upright for religion in the right state–the nature made by Allah in which He has made men; there is no altering of Allah’s creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know” (Ar-Room/ The Romans 30/30). This verse shows the division of religion in two, the true and the false one, the true religion is the one in compliance with the human nature.
 
The Glorified Allah commands: “Surely the (true) religion with Allah is Islam.”(Al-e- Imran/The House of Imran 3/19) “And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers.” (Al-e- Imran/The House of Imran 3/85)
The human starts to witness the ‘ayat’ of Allah from the moment he opens his eyes to his world. ‘Ayat’ means a clear sign, evidence and document. It is also a term used for the section into which the Surahs of Qur’an are divided.
 
The ‘ayats’ of Allah are not limited within the verses of Qur’an. On all the creatures; in the sky, on earth, in the animals, in the plants, in the inner world of the humans and everywhere His verses can be noticed[6]. These are the verses of creation. The Glorified Allah commands: “We will soon show them Our signs in the Universe and in their own souls, until it will become quite clear to them that it is the truth.” (Fussilat/  Detailed 41/53).
 
The verses placed all around the human and even inside him are the evidence for the existence of a Supreme Creator. This is the reason that as a child we are interested in this issue and start to ask lots of questions. Finally, we comprehend the existence of the Lord, of the absolute Master of everything as we had had the chance to touch Him and see Him with our own eyes. This issue was clarified in details in the chapter titled “Every Human Knows Allah”
As everyone understands and comprehends the existence of Allah, the Qur’an does not deal with the verification at all. None from the prophets of Allah made any effort for this.
In complete accordance with Allah’s commands their efforts were focused on the issue that there is no other deity beside Allah. The Glorified Allah commanded the Messenger Mohammed (a.s.): “Therefore fly to Allah, surely I am a plain warner to you from Him.
And do not set up with Allah another god: surely I am a plain warner to you from Him.
Thus there did not come to those before them a messenger but they said: A magician or a mad man.
Have they charged each other with this? Nay! they are excessive people.
Then turn your back upon them. You are not to blame for them.
And continue to remind. Surely the reminding will profit the believers.
And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should worship Me. 1 do not desire from them any sustenance and I do not desire that they should feed Me.
Surely Allah is the Bestower of sustenance, the Lord of Power, the Strong. So surely those who are unjust shall have a portion like the portion of their companions, therefore let them not ask Me to hasten on.
 
Woe to those who disbelieve because of their day which they are pledged with.” (Adh-Dhariyat/ The Winnowing Winds 51/50-60)
Religious is that person that obeys a certain religion. Everyone has a perception of religion and faith and everyone thinks of himself to be a devoted religious person of the religion he perceives. The Glorified Allah commands: “O children of Adam! let not the Satan cause you to fall into affliction. Hence, he expelled your parents from the garden, pulling off from them both their clothing that he might show them their evil inclinations. He (Shaitan) surely sees you, he as well as his crowd, from whence you cannot see them. Surely We have made the Shaitans to be the warden of those who do not believe.
And when they commit an indecency they say: We found our fathers doing this, and Allah has enjoined it on us. Say: Surely Allah does not enjoin indecency; do you say against Allah what you do not know?
Say: My Lord has enjoined justice, and set your whole selves (to Him) at every time and place of prayer. Call upon Him, making your devotion pure for Him; as He brought you forth in the beginning, so shall you return.
A part has He guided aright and (as for another) part deserved the loss of their way (by their choice). Surely they took the Shaitans for their protecting friends instead of Allah. They think that they are followers of the right.” (Al-A’raf/ Purgatory 7/27-30).
Regardless if he admits it or not, a person after acknowledging the existence of Allah he starts to place some marginal subject between himself and Allah; the so called friends of Allah, idols or certain deities.
As stated before, the true religion is in compliance with the human nature, and with a short analysis of religiousness on the base of the human character we would notice that all humans are divided in three; the ones that live in accordance with their creation, the ones that live the contrary of what their creation order requests, and the undetermined ones. 
 
4.1 The Ones Living According to Their Fitrat
All the Prophets advised the people not to worship anyone else beside Allah[7].
 
‘Ibadet’s –worshipping- dictionary definition is ‘taat’, in English submission, obedience to the command, and going after somebody[8].
 
It is a word that stands for slavery and worshipping. It is the idea of not worshipping anyone beside Allah and not becoming slave and servant to anyone else. This is the maximum freedom. The human nature needs freedom. While the humans run after the wish of enslaving those weaker than them and of becoming slaves to those more powerful then themselves. An adolescent, as a result of the ongoing test of this world, faces inner and outer pressure. These forces pressuring him inside and outside push him toward slavery. This pressure is contradictory and works in his character’s disadvantage.
 
The behavior should be in harmony with the creation rule. The ‘fitrat’ expresses the fundamental nature and the creation that builds this natural base, the change, the development, the principles and the laws. The growing, structure, and activity of everything; humans, animals, plants, earth and skies is in accordance with it. The evidences the human notices inside himself or in the world around him are the proofs of ‘fitrat’, creation. Qur’an is the transformation of the ‘fitrat’-creation- into ‘kelam’ –word.
The test is undertaken in a free world. The human behaves on his freewill both while making a decision and while accomplishing it. Thanks to the knowledge of his human nature, he can notice if what he has accomplished is good or bad. He is not responsible for the deeds forced upon him. In this case three human characteristics are brought to light.
First, the freedom of making decisions. The human possesses both the heart and the reason. His heart is the organ that makes the decisions while his reason is specialized in filtering the decisions that disagree with the human nature. If the decision fits the reason then it fits the human nature. If a mistake is done it can be easily noticed and restored.
A person’s heart and reason are the areas of his superior freedom. Nobody can intervene in the decision made there. The Glorified Allah commands: “To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and in earth; and whether you manifest what is in your minds or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it. He will forgive whom He pleases and punish whom He pleases, and Allah has power over all things.” (Al Baqara/The Cow 2/ 284)
 
What occurs inside you and what passes through your mind are not the same. The things that occur inside a human are feelings like faith, kufur (disbelief), love, hatred, and goodwill. The things that pass through your mind are feelings like the Satan’s tricks, demand, expectations and so on. People can obstacle the things that occur inside them but they can’t obstacle what passes through their minds, their spirits.
The essence of religion is faith. The basis of faith is its acceptance inside, in other words its acknowledgement with all your heart. The acknowledgement with heart can be known only by that person and by Allah. There is the place where the person is more deliberated than in any other condition. This is why nobody can be forced to accept or deny a religion. It is against the human nature. The Glorified Allah commands: “There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error; therefore, whoever disbelieves in the false deities (tagut) and believes in Allah he indeed has grasped the firmest handle, which shall not break off, and Allah is Hearer, Knower.” (Al Baqara/ The Cow 2/256)
 
The human can neither be forced to pray. Thus the pure ‘niyet’ (intention) is necessary for the prayer. ‘Niyet’ is the decision made inside with all the heart. “The deeds are defined by the niyets.[9]” Only the person that is performing the prayer and Allah can know the reason of that prayer. As there a prayer cannot be performed without niyet, the prayer cannot be forced. Yes, somebody can be forced to pray the salat, but without the niyet that person hasn’t prayed at all, just has leaned and bended purposelessly. And this is worthless.
It is the feelings inside what directs someone’s behavior. This is why those, who behave in contrary to the faith in their heart as a result of the pressure over them, are not responsible for their actions. The Glorified Allah commands: “He who disbelieves in Allah after his having believed, not he who is compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens (his) breast to disbelief– on these is the wrath of Allah. And they shall have a grievous chastisement.” (An-Nahl/ The Bee 16/106).
 
Second, the awareness of their actions. Just like the child who smokes in order to show he has grown up, people, too, are attracted to behave against their fitrat. But, in any case they know it is erroneous. The Glorified Allah commands: “(By the One), who inspired to (the soul) rebellion and takwaa; the one who purifies it will be successful and he who corrupts it, will indeed fail.” (Ash-Shams/The Sun 91/8-10)
Those that behave against their natural character of creation first feel discomforted, later quit or continue that way. What alarms him at first is the warning of Allah “of being inspired from rebellion”. This is the warning ‘you are in error’. He feels upset even after the rebelling what motivates him repent.
‘Takva’ means to protect oneself from misacting. This is a pleasant behavior. The pleasant behaviors make the person feel comfortable with himself. This is the inspiration he takes from Allah, such as the takva is his inspiration.
Vabisa b. Mabed relates that once he went to met Mohammed (s.a.v). He asked me: “Did you come to ask about the good behavior and the sin?” I said: “Yes.”.
He gathered his fingers and knocked on his breast and said three times: “Counsel with your soul , counsel with you heart Vabisa! The good is what calms the soul and the heart. Sin is whatever touches your inside and generates suspicion inside you. Even if people gave you their consent and agreed with your actions.[10]
 
The person that makes the right decision feels comfortable with himself. He is pleased while accomplishing this decision of his, as well. A faulty decision gives discomfort while taking and while accomplishing it. Thus, it is in conflict with his natural creation rule.  
The Glorified Allah commands: “Surely they who believe and do good deeds and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate they shall have their reward from their Lord, and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (Al Baqara/The Cow 2/277)
Third, the meditation; tedhekkur. The knowledge obtained from the inner and outer worlds should be grasped and should be hold in mind ready for use. This sort of knowledge is called ‘dhikr’. Reminding it, passing it through your heart or repeating it orally is dhikr as well[11].
This knowledge sometimes is incorrect. People can cleanse this knowledge by using the reason. There is a perfect harmony between the correct ones and what is written in the Book of Allah. This is the reason that every person, who reads the Qur’an has confidence and feels completed with the sensation this Book gives him.
The Prophets called people to meditate. Meditation is the activation of the knowledge kept in mind. Abraham (a.s.) while asking the ones worshiping the idols: “Don’t you meditate?” was asking them: “Don’t you realize your mistake when comparing my words to the knowledge that comes from your creation?[12]” This is a call directed to them in order to make them return to control inside themselves.
 
Both, the correct knowledge grasped by the fitrat and the common name of the divine books are dhikr[13]. The Glorified Allah commands: “Those who believe and whose hearts are set at rest by the remembrance of Allah; now surely by Allah’s remembrance are the hearts set at rest.” (Ar-Ra’d /The Thunder13/28)
The Glorified Allah in relation with Qur’an commands: “Surely We have revealed the Reminder and We will most surely be its guardian.” (Al Hijr Valley15/9)
The prophets of Allah were successful in convincing people because they activated the righteous knowledge inside them, in other words they were effective because what they claimed were the universal truths. The instructions of one of the prophets might not reach everyone. From this point people are divided in two; the ones that got to know the instructions of a prophet of Allah and the ones that never came across to any of these instructions.
 
4.1.1 Those Who Never Encountered Any Divine Message
 
The responsibility of those ones who never came across to the message of any prophet is limited in behaving in accordance to the human natural creation. Behaving in accordance to the human natural creation is to resist shirk; therefore it is to resist being slave to anyone else beside Allah. The Glorified Allah commands: “Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases.” (An-Nisa/ Women 4/48)
 
There are countless amounts of evidences that show the existence and oneness of Allah everywhere all over the world, while there is no evidence at all for any other alike Him. The only supports of this idea are the customary beliefs. The Glorified Allah commands: “And when it is said to them, Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger, they say: That on which we found our fathers is sufficient for us. What even though their fathers knew nothing and did not follow the right way?” (Al-Maeda/The Feast 5/104)
“Now, surely, whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth belongs to Allah. And those who call on others beside Allah, what do they follow? Those who call on others besides Allah; they do not follow (anything) but conjectures, and they only lie.” (Yunus/Jonah 10/66)
 
Those that make use of their reason never fall in mud. Because: “He casts uncleanness on those who don’t use their reason.” (Yunus/Jonah 10/100). For this reason no matter if a person came across prophetical instruction or no the only sin he will never be forgiven for, is shirk. Let’s repeat one of the verses mentioned before. “Or you should say: Only our fathers associated others (with Allah) before, and we were an offspring after them: Wilt Thou then destroy us for what the vain doers did?” (Al A’raf/Purgatory 7/173)
Those who have never encountered any prophetical instruction cannot be responsible for what is learned from a prophet. Because the Glorified Allah commands: “Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability.” (Al Baqara/ The Cow 2/ 286)
In addition to this chapter it would be advantageous to read the chapter titled “Who Enters in Heaven”.
 
 
4.1.2 Those Who Know the Divine Message
 
The person who comes across teachings that are given from the prophets of Allah firstly should question the prophet. Thus, Allah gave all His prophets a sort of certification to proof their prophetical existence. As it is impossible to be imitated, this certification is called miracle. The person who sees the miracle acknowledges the prophetic being of the Prophet as he had seen Allah assigning this duty to the Prophet with his eyes. This is why we say: “Eshhedu enne Muhammeden abduhu ve resuluh” meaning “I testify that Mohammed is the server and Prophet of Allah”. Everyone who comprehends his miracle, the Qur’an reaches that point. The Glorified Allah commands: “And whoever opposite the to Messenger after that guidance has become manifested to him, and follows other than the way of the believers, We will turn him to that to which he has (himself) turned and make him enter hell. What an evil resort.” (An-Nisa/The Women 4/115)
 
Those who behave in accordance with their human natural creation protect their individuality and obey the religion as it is the right thing to do. In relation with them, the Glorified Allah commands: “(As for) those who say: Our Lord is Allah, then continue in the right way, the angels descend upon them, saying: Fear not, nor be grieved, and receive the glad news of the Paradise you were promised.
We are your wardens in this world’s life and in the hereafter, and you shall have therein what your souls desire and you shall have all what you ask for.
A hospitable gift from the Forgiving, the Merciful.
 And whose words are better than he who calls to Allah, works righteousness, and says: I am surely of those who submit?” (Fussilat/Detailed 41/30-33)
 
4.2 The Undetermined
 
Those, who want to live as they wish, want Allah to offer them everything, but they don’t want to obey His commands. Some of them consider servitude to Allah as a device to fulfill their desires. If things go well they are pleased, if not they rebel. This category of people obeys religion not because it is the right thing to do, but to profit. If their profit is somehow damaged their decisions change and they go to find a solution in other places. This is why it is adequate to call this category the undetermined. In relation to this is advisable to read the chapter entitled “The Religion as perceived by the Idolaters”  
 
4.3 Those, Which Live in Contrary to Their Human Natural Creation (Fitrat)
 
The Glorified Allah commands: “Allah is He Who created you, then gave you sustenance, then He causes you to die, then resurrects you to life. Is there any of your “so called” partners of Allah who does aught of it? Glory be to Him, and high is He above the partners they associate (with Him).
Corruption has appeared on land and sea on account of what the hands of men have done. That He may give them a taste of some of their deeds, so that they may return. Say: Travel in the land, then see how was the end of those before you; most of them worshipped others besides Allah.
Then turn thy face straight to the right religion before there come from Allah the day which cannot be averted. On that day they shall become separated.
Whoever disbelieves, will bear the consequences of disbelief, and whoever does good, they prepare (good) for their own souls,” (Ar-Room/The Romans 30/40-44)
 Most people are idolaters what means that most people don’t behave in accordance with their ‘fitrat’. Idolater is the one, who admits the existence of an alike. Two subjects are involved in this duplication. The first one between them is always Allah, the second varies. Sometimes the valorized subject is a creature, sometimes a spiritual being. Characteristics that belong only to Allah’s start to be given to the subjects associated with Him. It is believed that the problem to be solved between the humans and Allah can only be solved with these subjects’ interfering[14]. This way the person before being a slave of Allah becomes the slave of this intercessor, because the intercessor is considered half human and half divine. It is this that made the 4th Ecumenical Council hold in Kadikoy in 451 to decide that Isa (a.s.): “…is of brilliant divinity and humanity, a true Lord and a true human…[15] ” This is an assumption that cannot be acceptable for the reason and for the human character. This is why those who have beliefs of this sort don’t prefer to use their reason; they try to condition people with fabricated deductions, suggestions, and mental pressure.
A category of people become slaves of themselves before being slaves of Allah by divinizing themselves.
 
4.3.1 The Slaves of Themselves
 
Those who become the slave of themselves are those who want to live their way.
 They are very disturbed when they face any instruction of the prophets of Allah. They want Allah to provide for them and offer them everything, but they don’t want to obey Him to command and don’t want to obey His commands. The Glorified Allah commands: “Surely those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers (those who) desire to make a distinction between Allah and His messengers and say: We believe in some and disbelieve in others, and desire to take a course between (this and) that. These it is that are truly unbelievers, and We have prepared for the unbelievers a humiliating punishment.” (An-Nisa/The Women 4/150-151)
This is a conversation with a person who denies the Messenger of Allah:
–         My faith in Allah is endless.
–         Everyone believes in Allah, this is inescapable for every human.
–         Time after time I conceal myself to Allah and ask for his help. This makes me feel happy and comforted.
–         Everyone does the same. The difficult part is to behave in accordance with Allah’s commands that are nothing else but the instruction of His Prophet. But instead of obeying the instruction you want to live your life as you wish.
–         Sure. It is my life, who has the right to interfere?
–         Can’t Allah, who gave you this life, interfere?
–         …?!
A group from this people categorize the commands of Allah in two; the suitable and unsuitable ones. Another group identify themselves as atheists. This is why we will analyze them in two different sections.
As mentioned before, some of the slaves of themselves are those who claim to be atheists. Some of them are the leaders, while the others their followers. The leaders instead of acting in compliance with the human nature – fitrat- they try to make the human nature fit them, so they produce a number of views and theories. Some embrace atheism as a result of the fear of loosing esteem. What makes these two groups similar is their desire to found and live in a world projected according to their desires and plans. The Glorified Allah commands: “Haven’t you seen him who takes his low desire for his god? Allah has made him err having knowledge and has set a seal upon his ear and his heart and put a cover upon his eye. Who can then guide him after Allah (has withdrawn Guidance)? Will you not reflect yet?” (Al Jathiya/Kneeling 45/23)
These people are in love with their persona, what makes them consider themselves the centre of the world, who thinks of their personal ideas to be the universal truth, but still remain shallow, angry and always tense as a result of their unsolved problems. The Glorified Allah commands: “Haven’t you seen him who takes his lust for his god? Will you then be a protector over him? Or do you think that most of them do hear or understand? They are nothing but as cattle –en’am-; nay, they are straying farther astray.[16]” (Furqan 25/ 43-44)
The ones that embrace atheism worried from the idea of loosing their position make things even worse. No matter what the evidence brought in front of them is their denial is firm and they are rigid. Such as the pharaoh, who although had no doubts that Musa (a.s.) was the prophet of Allah, still didn’t admit it. The verse related with this issue is “So when Our clear signs came to them, they said: This is clear mere magic.
And they denied them in iniquity and proudly, while their soul had been convinced of them” (An-Naml/The Ant 27/13-14)    
We understand that the pharaoh was an atheist from these verses: “And Musa said: O Pharaoh! surely I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds:
(I am) worthy of not saying anything about Allah except the truth: I have come to you indeed with clear signs from your Lord, so let the children of Israel go with me.” (Al-A’raf/ Purgatory 7/104-105)
“Pharaoh said: And what is the Lord of the worlds?
He said: The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them, if you had but sure belief.
(Pharaoh) said to those around him: Do you not hear?
He said: Your Lord and the Lord of your fathers from the beginning.
(Pharaoh) said: Most surely your messenger who is sent to you is mad.
(Musa) said: The Lord of the east and the west and what is between them, if you understand.
(Pharaoh) said: If you will take a god besides me, I will most certainly make you one of the imprisoned.” (Ash-Shuara/The Poets 26/23-29)
The pharaoh first tried to look reasonable, patient, and strong and to respond Musa (a.s.) calmly. When he realized he was unsuccessful this way he got angry and started to give extreme reactions. The Glorified Allah commands: “And truly We showed him (the pharaoh) Our signs, all of them, but he denied them and refused.
He said: Have you come to drive us out of our land by your magic, O Musa?
But we too will produce magic to match yours. Therefore make between us and you an appointment, which we should not break, (neither) we nor you, (in) a convenient place.
(Musa) said: Your appointment is the day of the Feast and let the people be gathered together in the early forenoon.” (Ta-Ha 20/56-59)
“And pharaoh said: Bring to me every skillful magician.” (Yunus/Jonah 10/79)
(The magicians and the people gathered together and the celebrations started.)
“Musa said to them: Throw what you are going to throw.
So they threw down their cords and their rods and said: By pharaoh’s power, we shall most surely be victorious.” (Ash-Shuara/The Poets 26/43-44)
“…on account of their magic, their cords and their rods– it was imaged to him (Musa) as if they were running.” (Ta-Ha 20/66)
“Then Musa threw down his staff and lo! it swallowed up their falsities.” (Ash-Shuara/The Poets 26/45)
“So the truth was confirmed, and what they did became null.
Thus they were defeated, and brought low.” (Al-A’raf /Purgatory 7/118-119)
“Then the magicians were thrown down prostrate.
They said: We believe in the Lord of the worlds.
The Lord of Musa and Haroun.
Pharaoh said: You believe in him before I give you permission; surely he is your leader who taught you magic. Soon you shall know: Certainly, I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and certainly I will crucify you all.” (Ash-Shuara/The Poets 26/ 46-49)
“The magicians said: We do not regard you as more than the clear signs that have come to us or than Him, Who created us. Therefore decide whatever you decide; you can only decide about this world’s life.
 We believe in our Lord, may He forgive us, our sins and the magic, which you forced us (to do); Allah’s is better and more lasting.” (Ta-Ha 20/72-73)
“And pharaoh said: Let me to slay Musa and let him call upon his Lord. I fear that he will alter your religion or that he will cause mischief in the land.
And Musa said: I seek refuge in my Lord and– your Lord, from every proud’ mischief who does not believe in the day of reckoning.” (Mumin/ The Believer 40/26-27)
 
This kind of people is aware of Allah’s existence, but denies admitting and showing it. The moment their hopes are gone and the veiling of it is meaningless, this how they demonstrate their belief:
“When drowning overtook him (pharaoh), he said: I believe that there is no god but He in Whom the children of Israel believe and I am of those who submit.” (Yunus/ Jonah 10/90)
The followers of these people are evaluated in the same way with their leaders. The Glorified Allah commands:
 “So he (pharaoh) incited his people to levity but they obeyed him. they were a transgressing people.” (Az-Zukhruf/ Ornaments 43/54)
 All those who are enslaved by themselves are aware of Allah. The ones explained above at the first sight seem different from the atheists but in fact they are completely the same. The first of those who enslaved themselves is Iblis. When Allah ordered him to prostrate before Adem (a.s.), he didn’t, considering this action below his position. The verses related with this issue are: “And when your Lord said to the angels: Surely I am going to create a mortal of the essence of black mud molded in shape.
So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, prostrate yourself onto him.
So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together, but Iblis (did it not); he refused to be one of those who prostrate.
He (Allah) said: O Iblis! what excuse have you that you are not with those who prostrated?
He said: I am not to prostrate myself to a mortal whom Thou hast created of the essence of black mud molded in shape.
He (Allah) said: Then get out of there, verily you are driven away:” (Al Hijr Valley 15/28-34)
“He rejected, he was proud, and he became one of the infidels.” (Al Baqara/ The Cow 2/34)
Iblis in fact hadn’t been conceited toward Adem but toward Allah, because it was His order he didn’t respect. This is why Allah told him: “then go down hence, for it is not for you to be arrogant here. Go forth, surely you are of the degraded.” (Al-A’raf/ Purgatory 7/13)
   Iblis never denied Allah’s existence and oneness. Even after being reckoned for perversehe said: “Lo! I fear Allah; and Allah is severe in punishment.” (Al-Anfal/Spoils of War 8/48)
Iblis also believes in the afterworld, because when discarded he said: “My Lord! then reprieve me till the day when they are raised.” (Al Hijr Valley15/36)
The infidelity of Iblis started with conditioning the commands of Allah and grew bigger later. Conditioning His commands is nothing less than considering yourself equal to Him in that area. And this is nothing else but divinizing your persona. This is the worse kind of hubris.
 
4.3.2 The Slaves of Others
 
Whoever rejects Islam gets enslaved by his ego or by somebody else. As a follower of the wrong path he seeks for other supporters and gathers with those who think like him. Their common mistakes turn into their common values. They form a chain from this mistaken value. This is a criterion found in the idol worshipers, as well, which is explained in the Qur’an. “And he (Ibrahim) said: You have only taken for yourselves idols besides Allah by way of affection between you in this world’s life.” (Al-Ankeboot/The Spider 29/25)
Every human is aware of his mistake. The Glorified Allah commands: “And certainly We sent in every nation a messenger proclaiming: Serve Allah and shun the false deities (tagut). There were some of them whom Allah guided and there were others on whom error became inevitably. So travel through the earth and see what the end of those who denied was.” (Al-Nahl/The Bee 16/36)
“(O Muhammad) Surely We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of good news and a warner. There have never been a people without a warner to be sent among them” (Fatir/ Initiator 35/24)
As every population was sent a prophet, there is a Prophet and his instructions at the basis of every existing religion. At the foundation of the religion of the previous inhabitants of Mecca stood the prophets Abraham and Ishmael, but they were acknowledged to be idolaters by the Qur’an. The tribe of the Quraish swelled with pride as they were of the descendents of Abraham[17]. This is why they did the prayers he did, such as the minor and major pilgrimage.
Although in their past there were these two prophets- Abraham and Ishmael- the earlier inhabitants of Mecca committed the sin of shirk. The majority of Christians started to consider Isa (a.s.) and the Holy Spirit, Jabraeel (a.s.), alike to Allah, also, committing the sin of shirk.
Allah demonstrates how the degeneration of religions with these verses directed to the ehl-I kitap: “[18],O followers of the Book! do not exceed the limits in your religion, and do not speak (lies) against Allah, but (speak) the truth; the Messiah, Isa son of Mariam is only a messenger of Allah and His Word which He communicated to Mariam and a spirit from Him; believe therefore in Allah and His messengers, and say not, Three. Desist, it is better for you; Allah is only one God; far be It from His glory that He should have a son, whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His, and Allah is sufficient for a Protector.[19]” (An-Nisa/Women 4/171)
The first to overstep the limits were the Jews, the Christians followed them. The Glorified Allah commands: “: O followers of the Book! be not unduly immoderate in your religion, and do not follow the low desires of people who went astray before and led many astray and went astray from the right path.
 Those who disbelieved from among the children of Israel were cursed by the tongue of Dawood and Isa, son of Mariam; this was because they disobeyed and used to exceed the limit.” (Al-Maeda/ The Feast 5/77-78)
By undertaking such extreme steps the Jews and the Christians became slaves of their clerics. The Glorified Allah commands: “They have taken their doctors of law and their monks for lords besides Allah, and (also) the Messiah son of Mariam and they were enjoined that they should serve one God only, there is no god but He; far from His glory be what they set up (with Him).” (Tawba/Repentance 9/31)
Adiyy b. Hatim relates that once he went to see the Prophet Mohammed (s.a.v.) with a golden cross on his neck. “Adiy through away that idol!” he said. After repeating the verse shown above the Prophet added: “They did not worship them (the clerics), but if they (the clerics) claimed something to be halal –permissible-, they obeyed. If they (the clerics) claimed something to be haram -impermissible- they obeyed.[20]” This is how they made them (the clerics) their lords.
It is noticeable that many Muslims are in the same situation. The sections of this book are the evidence. Divorce, Iftida- divorce with woman’s request- and the Inspection of Marriage are examples to this.
In conclusion, the true religiousness asks the usage of reason and behaving in accordance with the Book of Allah. Those who transgress the limits claim that the religion cannot be comprehended by the human mind. They prefer and advise others to obey their great figures instead of obeying the Book of Allah. For example the Catholics, who are aware of the fact that the belief in trinity is in contrast with the reason say: “The motive of faith is not the comprehension and acknowledgement of the revealed truth with our mind[21].” “Believing is a churchly activity. The faith of the church is more important in relation to our personal faith, as it is the church which carries and nourishes our faith. The church is the mother of all believers. Who has not the Church for Mother can not possibly have God for Father.[22]” 
The Glorified Allah commands the Jews and the Christians like this: “Say: O followers of the Scripture! you have no guidance till you observe the Torah and the Injeel and that which was revealed to you from your Lord. (O Muhammad) that which has been revealed to you from your Lord shall make many of them increase in transgress and unbelief; grieve not therefore for the unbelieving folk.” (Al-Maeda/The Feast 5/68)
The Glorified Allah warned the Muslims similarly: “And he whose sight to the Remembrance of the Beneficent, (Qur’an) We appoint for him a Shaitan. So he becomes his companion.
They turn them away from the Path, but they think that they are  being guided aright:” (Zuhruf 43/ 36-37)
As Qur’an is the written form, the Word (Kelam), of the fitrat, its language is universal. The language of Prophet Mohammed (s.a.v.), who explained and manifested It is universal, as well. The Qur’an is easy to grasp and understand for everyone, as a result of the fitrat verses every human notice inside and in the world around him. The attitudes toward it are conditioned by the mores. All the explanations and views of any from the sects and any from the scholar carry regional colors. While people need to be explained the Qur’an, which will tie them to life, need to be instructed the true religion. The Glorified Allah commands:
 “Surely this Qur’an guides to the most upright path. (Qur’an) gives good news to the believers who do good that they shall have a great reward.
 And to those who believe not in the Hereafter, We have prepared for them a painful punishment.” (Isra/ Children of Israel 17/9-10)

[1] Ismail b. Hammad el Cevheri, es-Sihah, (Tahkik: Ahmed Abdulgafur Atar) Beirut 1988 (___) mad.
[2] Cemaluddin Mohammed b. Manzur, Lizanu’l-arab, Beirut (___) 
[3] Mohammed Murtaza ez-Zebidi, Tacu’l- arus , Egypt 1306/1889(___)mad
[4] The translation of Kamus (___)
[5] Ragip el-Isfahani, Mufredat (___)
[6] Those that are interested on this issue can analyze these verses from the Qur’an: Bakara2/164; Ali Imran 3/190; En’am 6/97, 99; A’raf 7/ 26,58; Yunus 10, 5,6, 67, 92, 101; Yusuf 12/ 7, 35; Ra’d 13/2-4; Nahi 16/13, 65-69, 79; Isra 17/12 Kehf 18/9; Meryem 19/10; Taha 20/128, Ankebut 29/ 24, 33-35; Rum 30/ 21-24, 28; Lokman 31/31,32; Secde 32/26; Sebe’34/ 15; Zumer 39/ 42,52; Mumin 40/13; Casiye 45/3-6; Zariyat 51/ 22, 23, 35-37; Kamer 54/ 12-15
[7] Hood 11/2,26; Yusuf 12/40; Isra 17/23; Ya-Sin 36/60-61; Fussilat 41/14; Ahqaf 46/21.
[8] Ibn Mansour, Lisanu-l Arab, Itaat, is from the rood Tav’(____). Tav’ means to obey and to desire. Its antonym is ‘kerih’ which means not to be satisfied from what you see. The verse is: Then He directed Himself to the heaven and it is a vapor, so He said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said: We come willingly.   ( Fussilat/ Detailed 41/11). The word ‘taat’ derives from the same rood as well and means ‘obeying’ ‘submission’ and has e general usage as ‘to follow/obey the commands. (Ragip el-Isfhani, Mufredat ___mad.)
[9] This hadith is placed first in Sahih-I Buhari
[10] Sunen-I Darimi, Buyu , 2
[11] Ragib el-Isfahani, Mufredat ___
[12] En’am 6/80
[13] See Al-I Imran 3/58; A’raf 7/63; Hicr 15/6,9; Nahl 16/44; Enbiya 21/ 2, 50, 105; Furkan 25/18; Yasin 36/11; Sad 38/8; Kamer 54/25
[14] Muhammed Abdullah b. Hani Adab,1396, p172
[15] The Religious and Ethical Commands of the Catholic Church, par 467
[16] En’am is the common name given to these animals in Arabic; sheep, cows and camels.
[17]Ibn Hisam Siretu’n Nebi Beirut 1401/1981, Book I, p 216
[18] As He said: “Be (created) in the womb of Mariam” and he became.
[19] The term ‘the spirit of God’ has not been used exclusively for Isa. This term is used for Adam and for all human beings, too. The Glorified Allah commands:” So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall down making obeisance to him.” (Sad 38/72). Another verse according with the creation of human, is: “Then He made him complete and breathed into him of His spirit, and made for you the ears and the eyes and the hearts; little is it that you give thanks.” (Al-Sajda/ The Prostration 32/9)
[20] Tirmidi, Tefsiru’l Kur’an p 10
[21]The Religious and Ethical Commands of the Catholic Church, par 156
[22] The Religious and Ethical Commands of the Catholic Church, par 181
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Date: Sep 7, 2009