Explanation of the verses 11-16 in surah al-Hajj

The Indetermination between Shirk and Faith
Those who see personal desires and profits as primary aspects of life, desire Allah to provide them with everything but not to command anything. Some consider their addiction to Allah as a way of benefiting from this world. If what they hope happens, they become very religious; if not, they get pessimistic and detached from religion. This category doesn’t behave compatibly with religion not because it is the right thing to do, but because it is in their profit. As soon as their religiousness is not profitable anymore, their decisions change. This is why it is appropriate to call this category of people “the undetermined”.
The Glorified Allah speaks about this category of people like the following:
“And among men there is he who serves Allah on the verge. If a good befalls him he becomes satisfied, but if a trial afflicts him he utterly turns away. (With this attitude) He loses this world as well as the hereafter. That is indeed the sheer loss. He calls upon something besides Allah, that can neither harm nor benefit him. That is indeed the great straying. He calls upon someone whose harm is nearer than his benefit. What an evil guardian he is and what evil friends those are. Surely Allah will put those who trust Him and do good deeds in gardens beneath which rivers flow. Allah does what he wills. Whoever thinks that Allah will not assist him in this life and the hereafter, let him hold upon a reason towards the skies and disaffiliate (other relations), then let him see if this way solves his troubles or not.” (Al-Hajj / The Pilgrimage 22:11-15)
The motivation to hold at is the faith and the good actions. There is another verse:
“Believers! Seek help with fortitude and prayers, for Allah is with those who show fortitude.” (Al-Baqara / The Cow 2:153)
Some people, when encountered with problems run to those they think close to Allah in order to obtain Allah’s aid. First they go to graves and ask for help from the spirituality of people buried there. If their wishes are not accomplished, then they take their way to some men who they think are close to Allah. Some of these men show them the truth, while most of them require something in return. People usually give something to them or their communities with a kind of divine respect in order to have their problems solved, their worries relieved and their relation with Allah become mediated. They hope that these people will help them with the competency which is believed to be given them by Allah. Thus, they become damaged the most by committing shirk and by obtaining nothing at all.
The Glorified Allah says referring to these people:
“They have taken their scholars and their monks for lords besides Allah. (Also) the Messiah, son of Mariam. Yet they were commanded to serve only one God.  There is no god but He. Allah is far from all that they associate Him with.” (At-Tawba / The Repentance 9:31)
The term احبار (ahbar) mentioned in the verse is the plural form of حبر (hibr) and means trace. As their knowledge leaves traces in people’s heart, it has been used referring to scholars [1]. According to Halil b. Ahmad, it means a scholar from the religious scholars; a follower of Scriptures, or not, converted to Islam [2]رهبان (ruhban) is a singular term on its own or the plural form of priest. The word derives from the root رهبانية (ruhbaniyya) which means to take the responsibility of a very high amount of prayer on you [3]. Those who take this responsibility between us are widely known as erudite, sufi, and dervish. For their leaders the same terms erudite, sufi, and dervish are used, while for the superior leaders the definition “sheikh” is common. ارباب (erbab) is the plural form of the word رب (rab) meaning Lord. It also means owner. The Arabic slaves call their owners ‘rab’. Joseph, while in prison told his friend who would leave the prison to go serve the drinks to the king: “Remember me with your lord.” (Yusuf/Joseph 12:42)
In Turkish the slave owner is called “efendi”. A person that places a high cleric between himself and Allah gives to this cleric divine features in his mind. This is shirk. Christians place Jesus between themselves and Allah, and call him Lord. Some clerics are labeled as Father or Lord (efendi/rab) consciously.
The most reasonable refutation to be done to the previous verse’s translation is that the words ‘ahbar’ and ‘rahban’ are commonly used for the clerics of the followers of Scriptures. With this translation of the verse, the Muslim clerics are included as well. This is the answer to this refutation: “Those who consider the religious scholars and clerics their effendis, who in front of them behave as slaves, and who submit to their sayings with no oppositions or questions will make them their Rab, Lord, so they will be in the same situation to the followers of the Scriptures.”
Adeyy b. Hatim relates that once he went to see the Prophet Mohammed (s.a.v.) with a golden cross on his neck. “Adeyy through away that idol!” he said. After repeating the verse 31 of surah At-Tawba, the Prophet added: “They did not pray to them (the clerics), but if they (the clerics) claimed something to be helal – permitted-, they obeyed. If they (the clerics) claimed something to be haram – forbidden- they obeyed.[4]” This is how they made them (the clerics) their lords.
Now let’s turn to our subject. The person encountered with troubles, applies to intercessors he knows to be close to Allah and tries to obtain their support. Seeking to surpass troubles this way is nothing less than considering someone alike to Allah and losing his way. This is the case when all the hopes are gone.
The Glorified Allah commands:
Whoever associates others with Allah, he is as he had fallen from the sky and the birds snatch him away or the wind carries him off to a far-distant place.” (Al-Hajj / The Pilgrimage 22:31)
There is only one thing to be done; the immediate abandoning of these intercessors and the direct returning to Allah while having patience in getting His aid.
Troubles being part of the test we undertake in this world the patience is a very important factor.
The Glorified Allah commands:
Whoever thinks that Allah will not assist him in this life and the hereafter, let him hold upon a reason and turn toward the skies, let him interrupt the other relationship immediately, then let him see if this way will solve his trouble or not.” (Al-Hajj/Pilgrimage 22/15)
 This is the subsequent verse:
And thus We have revealed it with clear signs. Allah guides who wills.” (Al-Hajj/Pilgrimage 22:16)
There are many the explanations of this verse. This is what we call the traditional way of commenting it. There is another method of commenting it; the one that takes the Qur’an as basis. This method shows what the true meaning of a comprehendible Qur’an is.
9.1 The Traditional Method
In the commented explanations and translations of Qur’an this verse has been clarified in three different ways
1- According to the first comment: “Whoever thinks that Allah won’t aid him in this world and in the afterworld….” the ‘he/him’ in this section of the verse is supposed to be the Prophet Mohammed. Even the maintainers of this view are divided in two between them. According to the first ones the term in سبب (sabab) stands for rope and the term سماء (samah) stands for the ceiling of the house. In this case the full meaning of the verse becomes: “Whoever thinks that Allah won’t aid him (the messenger) in this world and in the afterworld, let reach the ceiling of his house with a rope and let commit suicide; let him see if this trick of his will take away what he hates.”
Elmalili Muhammed Hamdi Yazir, Hasan Basri Cantay, Omer Nasuh Bilmen, Bekir Sadak, Suat Yildirim, Muhammed Hamidullah, with Ali Ozek, Hayrettin Karaman and his friends chose this meaning.
The second ones claim that the term ‘sebep’ is used in its first meaning; cause, and the term ‘sema’ stands for sky. In that case the meaning of the verse becomes:
Whoever thinks that Allah won’t aid him (the Prophet) in this and in the afterworld; let reach the sky and let disconnect the revelation that comes him from Allah; let him see if this trick of his will take away what he hates.”
Mustafa Hizmetli chose this meaning.
2- The pronoun ‘he/him’ demonstrates the من (men) = who/whoever at the beginning of the verse. ‘Sabab’ stands for rope and ‘samah’ for ceiling, in this case too. Then the meaning of the verse becomes:
Whoever thinks that Allah won’t aid him, in this and in the afterworld, let reach the ceiling of his house with a rope and let commit suicide; let see if this trick of his will take away what he hates.”
Ismail Hakki Baltacioglu, Suleyman Ates, Ahmet Agirakca, and Besir Eryasoy preferred this meaning.
Taberi, Zamahseri, and Ibn Kesir had preferred the first version.[5]
3- The third view is like this: ‘sema’ is used in it first meaning sky, while ‘sebep’ stands for rope. The ليقطع (liyakta) which was translated ‘to disconnect the revelation’ before, according to this view means to advance. So, in this case its full meaning becomes: “…let reach the skies and let obstacle the help that comes to the Prophet; or let him try to find sustenance for himself…”[6] Muhammed Esed preferred this meaning, but he had used the word ‘path’ for the meaning of the verse, which in his version becomes: “Whoever thinks that Allah won’t aid him in this and in the afterworld, let him reach the skies with a different path and let him advance; let him see if this trick of his will take away his troubles[7].”
Some of these scholars- translators and commentators- claimed that the verse is related with the 11th and 12th verses of Surah Al-Hajj, but they never showed what the relation was.
It is obvious that the previous comments and translations are confusing because the relation of the verse with the others were erased what created a certain blankness. In order to fix the done harm, new mistakes have been done.
1- The first comment is incorrect because it is impossible that the pronoun ‘he’ is pointing to the Prophet Mohammed (s.a.v.). First, pronouns are used instead of nouns mentioned before, while the Prophet of Allah isn’t mentioned from the first verse of Surah Al-Hajj to that point.
According to the first group of those who advocate this comment, those, who are enemies of the Prophet and think that Allah won’t help them in this and in the afterworld, should commit suicide. Such a person becomes happy.. Can you tell people like that, if you want to surpass your anger commit suicide?
Those who made this comment tried to fix it by placing some other explanations between lines. These words of Elmalili on this issue show the common attitude of these scholars on this subject:
“So, this kind of people inspires such an idea because of their anger and detestation toward the Prophet and because they don’t wish the Prophet’s to get help and succeed.[8]
The second group of those who maintain that the pronoun ‘he/him’ stands for the Prophet, say that ‘the person mentioned in the verse should reach the sky and disconnect the revelation. Naturally nobody is able to do this, but Allah never gives people responsibilities bigger than their capacity; weights they can’t carry on their shoulder. Consider the warning he revolved to his Prophet:
“And if their aversion is hard on you, if you can, seek an opening (to go down) into the earth or a ladder (to ascend up) to heaven so that you should bring them a sign.” (Al-An’am / The Cattle 6:35)
The 15th verse of Surah Hajj finishes this way: “let him see if this trap of his will take away his anger.”
What can a dead person, that committed suicide previously, see now?
Zemahseri relates that the reason of saying كيد (keyd) = trap, is because there is nothing he can do; he is trapped. While the saying “…, let him see if this trap of his will take away his anger” points to the question that can he possibly cut the aid of Allah to the Prophet–the aid that enrages him- as he thought in his world of imagination[9].
How can a rope be thrown to sky? How can the relation with the world be cut to go to the skies and further? This verse cannot be evidence to the astronomic technological developments because these comments are directed to the infidels contemporaneous to the Prophet.
2- The second comment is also irrational. The person, who thinks that Allah won’t help him in this and in the afterworld, uses tricks to surpass his rage and obtain help. Logically nobody commits suicide to play a trick. If Allah is not going to help in the afterworld why should he commit suicide? Can such an illogical be written in the Book of Allah?
3- Neither the third view is rational. How can a disconnection from this world toward the skies and further, blocking the aid for the Prophet and the advance of obtaining the personal share of providence (riziq) occur?
Is there any way to reach the skies, so that Muhammed Esed comments the verse as “..let him reach the skies with a different path and let him advance; let him see if this trick of his will take away his troubles.”
In this section we dealt only with the 15th verse of Surah Al-Hajj. As it will be noticed in the next sections just because the verses’ relation to one another in the traditional method is not given enough importance, the verses 11 to 16 of this Surah which are closely related to verse 15 have been commented in a confusing way as well. The next section will deal with side of the issue.
9.2 The Method of Qur’an
Like all the verses of Qur’an the verses 11 to 16 of Surah Al-Hajj are related with each other and with the other verses. Now let’s analyze these verses and the relation netting between them.
The 11th verse:
“And among men there is he who serves Allah on the verge. If a good befalls him he becomes satisfied, but if a trial afflicts him he utterly turns away. (With this attitude) He loses this world as well as the hereafter. That is indeed the sheer loss.”
Every Muslim gets tested in this world. The Glorified Allah commands:
We shall test you hardly with something of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits. Give good news to the patients.
Who, when a misfortune befalls them, say: To Allah we belong and to Him is our return. 
They are those on whom are the blessing and mercy from their Lord. Those are the followers of the right path.” (Al-Baqara / The Cow 2:155-157)
He who cannot support the trouble he has to be patient with, in order to get rid of this trouble he tries to involve a person of high spirituality in his relationship with Allah, what takes him away from the right path. This is what the 12th verse says.
The 12th verse:
“He calls upon something besides Allah, that can neither harm nor benefit him. That is indeed the great straying.”
The Muslims around us take their way to the tombs of people like Eyup Sultan, they consider of high spirituality and close to Allah. But, they are dead; they can’t hear us and can’t respond us. There is no way of seeing them before the Judgment Day.
The Glorified Allah commands:
Say: Do you see what you invoke besides Allah? Show me what they have created of the earth? Have they a share in the heavens? Bring me a scripture before this or traces of knowledge, if you are truthful. And who is more astray than he who calls besides Allah upon those who will not answer him till the day of resurrection. They are unconscious of their call?” (Al-Ahqaf / The Dunes 46:4-5)
Later this troubled person tries to involve a cleric he knows to be close to Allah. He associates to him to obtain his spiritual support and get rid of the trouble. The 13th verse shows this.
The 13th Verse
He calls upon him whose harm is nearer than his profit. What an evil guardian and what an evil associate is he.”
However the person he asks for help needs help himself. The Glorified Allah commands: “Those whom you invoke besides Him are not able to help you, nor can they help themselves” (Al-A’raf 7/197)
Say: Call on those besides Him, whom you fancy; they have no power to remove your troubles not to change them.
Those, whom they call upon, seek (themselves) means of access to their Lord -whoever of them is nearest- and they hope for His mercy and fear His chastisement. Surely the chastisement of your Lord is a thing to be shunned.
” (Isra/Children of Israel 17/56-57)
This person enters the community of the high cleric, becomes his slave by presenting him gifts and bending over in front of him, what brings him to commit shirk. He is damaged in the worst way by getting nothing. The Glorified Allah commands: “They took gods besides Allah in order that they might be helped. It is not in their (god’s) power to help them. In fact they are to them (the gods) a troop in arms.” (Ya-Sin 36/74-75)
Most of people attempt to take their wishes to Allah and have them accomplished by involving subjects they consider of extraordinary powers, the spirits of their ancients, and people they know to be close to Allah. This is the basis factor that divides Islam from the superstitious beliefs. The 11th,12th, and 13th verses point out that a Muslim that enters this way is in a total loss, as he will lose both this and the Hereafter. This is the real loss.
The subjects required for help in the 12th verse are identified with ما ma= objects, while in the 13th verse they are identified with من men=persona. And, the subjects, asked for help in the 12th verse, are identified as ‘objects’ that will give nor profit nor harm, at all. The subjects asked for help in the 13th verse are identified as people whose harm is closer than the profit. The commented translation has been prepared so as to show that they are two different subjects. In the traditional method this diversity wasn’t minded; it was thought that in both the verses the ones asked for help were the idols.
The contemporary commentator Muhiyiddin ed-Dervish has considered the 13th verse the repetition of the 12th; it’s replacing (bedel). The view written below will show that the great scholar of commentary ez-Zemahsheri was of the same idea.
‘Bedel’ is the replacement of a word or a sentence with another. Considering the second verse the ‘bedel’ –replacement- of the first ones means to give to the second verse the first’s meaning and not to notice the significant diversities. It is to consider the second one; the first one’s meaning based duplication.
In this case the expression “…objects, that will give nor profit neither harm, at all” will be changed with the expression of the second verse “…people, whose harm is closer than the profit.” As these commentators had decided that the ones asked for help were the idols, the significance of the verse is to be that the idols have the power to help and harm, but their harm is closer than their help. This opposes to a considerable number of verses. The famous commentator ez-Zemahseri instead of remedying his mistake, said: “if you ask that after the Koran denies idols’ capability of helping and harming, but it is shown in these two verses, isn’t it controversial?[10] Then my answer will be that if you get to understand the meaning, the controversy will be lost. Thus, the Glorified Allah had put the idolater in pitiable situation, because he has become the slave of a soulless object, unable to help or damage. As a result of his ignorance and perversion, he believes that he should request the idol for salvation. Later, when on the Day of Judgment, this idolater is damaged as a result of his idols, when he goes to hell for having been their slave, and sees nothing from the requested salvation he starts to yell and call: “That one whose harm is closer than the profit! He is such a bad helper and such a bad friend.”
As the second verse is the first one’s ‘bedel’, the term ‘call’ has been repeated. As the Glorified Allah had commanded like this: “Calls and calls for help from those close to Allah, which won’t harm neither will help (the idolater).” Later as Allah had continued like this: “Such a bad helper is he, whose harm- out of his being idol- is closer than his profit, out of his being a savior.[11]
The first comment of Zemahseri is unacceptable. The idolater condemned to eternal hell which help of the idol might he be awaiting so that he would say ‘whose harm is closer than his help’.   
The second one is even less logical, because that comment is to consider the idol as an intercessor.
Muhyiddin ed-Dervis claims that the number of explanations of the 13th verse is seven. The bad news is that all of them are irrational…This verse has engaged the scholars of Arabic grammar and comment, but none of them came up with a comment that would satisfy the thirst[12].
Considering the second verse as the repetition of the first one without a proper comment is not a choice. If these scholars would see how people are being exploited under the veil of religion would be more careful while commenting and explaining the verses.
The word عشر (A-SH-R) at the end of this verse is very important.
The name given to those from the same lineage who live together as a community is ‘ashirah’ (tribe). ‘Ashir’ is the name given to the persons who come from the same family tree, who know each other well, and who live together[13]. Nowadays we call this member; of a group, a party or a community. In the vicinity of persons believed to be close to Allah and believed that will contribute spiritually, communities are formed. Those who approach them enter the community and might somehow profit by this. Probably this is the help mentioned in the verse.
While this verse is pointing to this special kind of profit: “(Ibrahim) said: You have chosen idols besides Allah, this is just a way of friendship among yourselves in this world’s life. Then on the resurrection day some of you shall refute others and some of you shall curse others. Your abode is the fire, and you shall not have any helpers.” (Al-Ankaboot/The Spider 29/25)
The 14th Verse
Surely Allah will cause those who believe and do good deeds to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise). Allah does what he pleases.”
Allah will take those, who have faith and accomplish good actions, to heavens with running springs inside. Allah accomplishes whatever He wants to.
These are those ones who when encountered with difficulties didn’t turn their backs but had patience. This is a difficult task. The Glorified Allah commands:
 No  soul knows what is hidden for them of that which will refresh the eyes; a reward for what they did.(Sajdah-Prostration 32/17)
“(Luqman to his son):O my son! keep up prayer, enjoin the good, forbid the evil, and bear patiently whatever befalls you; surely these acts require courage.” (Luqman 31/17)
The 15th Verse
Whoever thinks that Allah will not assist him in this life and the hereafter, let him hold upon a reason and turn toward the skies, let him interrupt the other relationship immediately, then let him see if this way (he) will solve his trouble or not”
The person mentioned above is a person whose endeavors to convince Allah with mediators have resulted unsuccessful; this has made him desperate and defenseless. But in fact he knows that everything is in Allah’s hands. The Glorified Allah commands: “Say: Who gives you sustenance from the heaven and the earth? Who possesses the hearing and the sight? Who brings forth the living from the dead, and brings forth the dead from the living? Who regulates the affairs? They will say: Allah! Say then: Will you not then guard (against evil)?
This is Allah, your true Lord! Apart the truth (what remains) but error. How are you then turned away?
” (Yunus/Jonah 10/31-32)
When the trouble does not pass, he thinks that /Allah won’t help him in this world and in the Hereafter. According to this, Allah, Owner of the infinite mercy is commanding: “Abandon those erroneous ways, obey to My commands and turn directly to Me. See if your trouble will be gone or not.”
The terms of the verse:
a)فليمدد (fe’l-yemdud) that derives from the root ‘med’. ‘Med’ means to extend by pulling and to create a vertical (not equal in both sides) relationship[14].
b)السبب (es-Sebeb), means, moderator, mean, and begetting[15]. The Muslim doesn’t involve an intermediary between Allah and himself, because he is aware that Allah is to him closer than his aorta. Although there are causes and begetting a Muslim may rely upon. The Glorified Allah commands:
_________________ “O you who believe! be afraid of Allah and seek mean of nearness to Him.  Strive hard in His way. May be that you prosper.” (Al-Maeda/The Feast 5/35)
The mean – vesile – mentioned in the verse is with the ‘elif’ and the ‘lam’ what signifies a widely known mean, mentioned in the Qur’an many times. For example: “O you who believe! seek help through patience and prayer. As, Allah is with the patients.” Al-Baqara/The Cow 2/277)
This is another example: “Surely they who believe, do good deeds, keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate they shall have their reward from their Lord. They shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (Al-Baqara/The Cow 2/277)
a)      _____ (sema) means sky. “To turn your face to ky a reason” is a symbolic expression that stands for the ‘call on’ to Allah. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.v.) used the same words for his dua.  _______( Qad near teqallube vechike fi’-semal)  “We have seen the turning of your face to heaven, (time after time.)” (Al-Baqara/ The Cow 2/144)
b)                 _____ has been translated as ‘to interrupt the other relationship’; because what pulled this person to this situation is his attempt to involve mediators in his relationship with Allah. As the act of involving mediators needs to give the mediator attributions that belong only to Allah, the person commits shirk. Shirk is an unforgivable guilt. This is why that relationship should be immediately interrupted. The Glorified Allah commands: “Surely Allah does not forgive the attribution of a partner to Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases.” (An-Nisa/The Women 4/48)
Here the term ___= thumme has acquired the active preposition with the sense of immediacy. Just likely to the verse below were ___=maa means togetherness[16].
________ “He became one of those who believe, advice one another to show patience, and advice one another to show compassion.” (Al-Balad/The Town 90/17)
c)      The term ___=hel at the end of the verse is an interrogative preposition used to obtain an affirmative reply related to an obvious concrete event. It can’t possibly be used with an interrogative meaning or for any uncertain issue[17]. The traditional commentary gave this quite a different meaning. To obtain the true meaning it has been translated as: “…see if that will resolve your trouble or not.”
d)      The term _____= keyd means to approach something, to find solution to your problem, to endeavor. A person’s keyd to himself means to help himself and to define his direction (in life)[18]. The ‘keyd mentioned in the verse, being the ‘keyd’ of a person to himself, it has been translated as ‘this way’.
‘Keyd’ stands also for ‘mekr’. ‘Mekr’ is to show somebody another way, different from the direction he has taken. Usually it has been translated as trick or as deception.
‘Keyd’ is divided in two according to its aim. The first one is the ‘keyd’ of the deceivers. The Glorified Allah commands: ______ “This is that he might know that I have not been unfaithful to him in secret and that Allah does not guide the device of the unfaithful.” (Yusuf /Joseph12/52). While the other one is the ‘keyd’ of good hearted people: ______ “So he began with their sacks before the sack of his brother, then he brought it out from his brother’s sack. Thus did We plan for the sake of Yusuf; it was not (lawful) that he should take his brother under the king’s law unless Allah pleased; We raise the degrees of whomsoever We please, and above every one possessed of knowledge is the All-knowing one.” (Yusuf/ Joseph 12/76)[19]
e)      The term _____=ģaybz means fury, wrath and the increasing anger that came out and got bigger as a result of the increased tension[20]. This anger will depress and make him feel desperate; this is why it was translated as desperation.
The 16th Verse
“And thus have We revealed it in clear arguments. Surely, Allah guides whom intends(to be guided).
When the verses are analyzed in relation to each other as a whole with their previous and their subsequent verses their meanings can be discovered quite easily. As this is not how it is done in the traditional method of commentary, it was not possible to grasp the meanings of these obvious verses. This is why the traditionalists were constricted to explain the 16th verse differently. For example, this is Taberi’s explanation: “The Glorified Allah says: Humans! The way We proofed you that even after someone has expired Our power is more than sufficient to bring him back to life, that same way We brought the Qur’an down to earth to Mohammed (s.a.v.) in clear verses as signs which show the right path for those to whom Allah wants to find it.[21]
If you think the explanation above you will see the significance of Qur’an being an understandable book. Unfortunately, this significance, with the traditional method of commentary, is lost.


[1] Mufredat (__) issue
[2]El-Halil b. Ahmed el-Ayn (__) issue
[3] Mufredat (__) issue
[4] Tirmidi, Tefsiru’l Kur’an p 10
[5] Taberi, Tefsir’ut-taberi, Book IX, page 118-121; Mahmud b. Omer az-Zamahseri, el-Kessaf Daru’l Marife, Beirut, Book III, Page 8; Ismail b.Omer b. Kesir, Tefsiru’l Kur’ani’l-azim, Beirut 1401/1981 Book II. Page 211
[6] Kadi Abdullah b. Omer el- Beydavi Envaru’t-tenzil and Esraru’t-tevil (The Commentary of Beydavi) Istanbul, no date, book II, Page 85. Beydavi himself preferred the first view and show this last one under this title (___)
[7] Muhammed Esed The message of Qur’an
[8] Elmalılı Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Hak Dini Kur’an Dili Yeni Mealli Türkçe Tefsir İstanbul 1935 pg.3389
[9] Zemahsheri, elKeşşaf, v. III, pg.
[10] Zamahseri, el-Kessaf, Book III, Page 7-8
[11] Zamahseri, el-Kessaf, Book III, Page 7-8
[12] Muhyiddin ed-Dervish Irabu’l Qur’ani’lKerim we Beyanuh. Damask-Beirut
[13] Ragip el_İsfahani A-SH-R issue
[14] Firuzabadi, Besair Book IV,
[15]Firuzabadi, Besair Book III, page 169.
[16]Firuzabadi, Besair Book II, page 344
[17] The Translator Asim, The Translation of Kamus
[18] İbn Manzur Lisanul Arab keyd issue
[19] Firuzabadi, Besair v. IV,pg.399-400
[20] Mutercim Asim, Kamus Tercümesi.
[21]
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Date: Sep 7, 2009