What are the different meanings of the word “al-kitab”in the Holy Qur`an?

Question : I read the article about “The book and The Wisdom” from the writings of Prof.Dr. Abdülaziz Bayındır.  When I was looking  to Surat ‘Āli `Imrān-verse 48  and at Surat ‘Āli `Imrān-verse 110;  some words  got my attention such as: “Wisdom”, “Torah”, Injil(Gospel) and “The  Book”. What is the meaning of “Al-Kitab” at these verses? I know that the Torah was sent before the times of Jesus Christ; but except that one, were there any other books came to the Messengers of Allah? “Al” is used as an affix and the book (kitab) word is used in its single form, so those things made me more curious, would you give me an explanation ?

 

 Answer:

At the Surat ‘Āli `Imrān,verse 48 and Surat Al-Mā’idah,verse 110 words such as the Torah, Gospel and Al-Kitab are mentioned all-together  so that there is a significant difference between using  the “al-kitab” word at these verses and at Surat Al-Baqarah, verse 151. At the verse(in Baqarah), ” al-kitab” points out the Holy Qur`an. At the other 2 verses which you mentioned “al-kitab” word does not indicate the Holy Qur`an. As a meaning that fits the most is “the writing”(holy book). At those verses Jesus Christ (pbuh) is mentioned and the word Gospel is found in the following text that is why we gave this kind of a meaning . On the other hand at the some verses of the Holy Qur`an, the things which were unknown to a man, are taught by the books(writings). There are examples as: “Who taught (to write) with the pen, Taught man that which he knew not” Surat Al-`Alaq 96/4-5. Another example is : “(And) taught him eloquence at the Surat Ar-Raĥmān 55. There was a clue in Al-Baqarah Surat so it pointed out the Holy Qur`an. If there is no clue in the verse, that means a holy book is mentioned there. Also every Messenger teach the Wisdom from the book which is given to them.

Related verses from the Holy Qur`an are:

 

وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرٰيةَ وَالْاِنْج۪يلَ

He will teach him the writing, true knowledge and the Torah and the Gospel.

( Surat ‘Āli `Imrān 3/48 )

 

اِذْ قَالَ اللّٰهُ يَا ع۪يسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ اذْكُرْ نِعْمَت۪ي عَلَيْكَ وَعَلٰى وَالِدَتِكَ اِذْ اَيَّدْتُكَ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ تُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِي الْمَهْدِ وَكَهْلًا وَاِذْ عَلَّمْتُكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرٰيةَ وَالْاِنْج۪يلَ وَاِذْ تَخْلُقُ مِنَ الطّ۪ينِ كَهَيْـَٔةِ الطَّيْرِ بِاِذْن۪ي فَتَنْفُخُ ف۪يهَا فَتَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِاِذْن۪ي وَتُبْرِئُ الْاَكْمَهَ وَالْاَبْرَصَ بِاِذْن۪ي وَاِذْ تُخْرِجُ الْمَوْتٰى بِاِذْن۪ي وَاِذْ كَفَفْتُ بَن۪يۤ اِسْرَاۤء۪يلَ عَنْكَ اِذْ جِئْتَهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَقَالَ الَّذ۪ينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ اِنْ هٰذَاۤ اِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُب۪ينٌ

The Day when Allah will say: “O Jesus son of Mary! Remember My favor on you and on your mother, when I strengthened you with the holy Spirit; you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity, and when I taught you the writing, the wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel; and when you create a thing out of clay like the form of a bird by My permission, then you breathed into it and it became a bird by My permission, and you healed the born blind and the leprous by My permission; and when you brought forth the dead from the grave by My permission; and when I rescued you from the children of Israel; because when you came to them with clear proofs, those who disbelieved among them said: This is nothing but clear magic.” (Surat Al-Mā’idah 5/110)

كَمَاۤ اَرْسَلْنَا ف۪يكُمْ رَسُولًا مِنْكُمْ يَتْلُوا عَلَيْكُمْ اٰيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكّ۪يكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

We have sent among you a messenger to complete our goodness. He recites you our verses, improves you and teaches you the Book and the wisdom; he  teaches you that which you did not know. (Surat Al-Baqarah 2/151)

 

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Date: Jan 16, 2012