The commanded attitude against non-Muslims in the Qur’an is as the following:
“… And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with God much abuse. But if you keep patient and protect yourselves… Indeed, that is of the matters that require determination.” (Al-e Imran 3:186)
We learn from the following verses how to behave in such cases:
“Good and evil are not equal. Repel evil with good, and the person who was your enemy becomes like an intimate friend.
But none will attain it except those who persevere, and none will attain it except one having a great portion of good.
And if there comes to you from Satan an evil suggestion, then seek refuge in God. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing. ” (Fussilat 41:34-36)
In spite of certain rulings in the verses, all of the sects agree on execution as being the punishment of blaspheming the Prophet (p.b.u.h.). Advisories of death are given based on this TRADITION.
Verses that clearly express Muslim-nonMuslim relations are below:
“God does not forbid you from being kind and equitable to those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes. Indeed, God likes those who are equitable.
God only forbids you from making friends of those who fight you because of religion or expel you from your homes or aid in your expulsion. The ones that make friends of them are the wrongdoers.” (Mumtahenah 60:8–9)
According to verses, there are three critical lines that forbid the friendly relations with non-Muslims:
1. Battling against Muslims due to their religion.
2. Driving Muslims out of their homes.
3. Supporting the ones driving Muslims out.
We cannot make friends with or exhibit sympathy to the ones that cross these lines.
As long as these three lines are not crossed, we must be patient with wrong attitudes of non-Muslims and announce to them that they are doing wrong in a peaceful manner.
If they cross the red lines, friendly relations end. However, that is still not an act of war. The verse that commands to battle is the following:
“Fight for God’s cause against those who start a fight against you, but do not attack unjustly. God does not like those who attack unjustly.” (Al-Baqarah 2:190)
Below is the verse that exposes the rule of war:
“Whoever attacks you, retaliate for that attack with its equivalent. Be mindful of God and protect yourselves, and do know that God is with the mindful.” (Al-Baqarah 2:194)
This view of religion without Qur’an and Wisdom must be left away, and Islam must be presented as the source of solutions for humanity. God the Almighty decrees:
“Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good advice, and debate with them in the most dignified manner. Your Lord is aware of those who stray from His path, and He is aware of those who are guided.
If you were to retaliate, retaliate to the same degree as what is done to you. But if you resort to patience—it is better for the patient.
So be patient. Your patience is solely by the help of God. And do not grieve over them, and do not be stressed over what they conspire.
Indeed, God is with those who fear Him and those who are doers of good.” (Ash-Shuara 26:125-128)