This research sheds light on the sadaqat al-fitr (fidya) that is given in Ramadan, corrects a widespread misconception about verse 2:184, and answers the following questions:
– Who needs to give the sadaqat al-fitr (fidya/compensation fee) for Ramadan fast?
– Can we choose paying a fee instead of fasting?
– What does “taqat” mean?
The Glorified Allah commands:
أَيَّامًا مَعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ فَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ وَأَنْ تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ.
“(The prescribed fast is for) a certain number of days. Whoever among you does not fast on those days because you are sick or on a journey, then (you should fast) the same number of days on other days. Those who are able to fast are also required to pay a fee (which is equivalent to the cost) of feeding a desperate person. ” (Al-Baqarah /The Cow 2:184)
2. The second view: Those who did not fast because they were sick or on a journey, must fast after Ramadan and at the same time they must pay the fee. Abu Bakr al-Jassas (d. 370 h.) ) is he who transmitted this view, but he neither explained whose view it is, nor did he provide us with any evidence or support.
So, ‘taqat is a noun standing for ‘what a person can support or achieve with no difficulty’. Reason for the error was absence of the word (دون = dun) in this sentence. It can easily be understood without corrupting the integrity of the sentence. Starting from this point, the expression (يطيقونهالذين وعلى) has been assigned the meaning: ‘who fast with (considerable) difficulties’.
A similar comment is in the edition “The way of Qur’an, Translation into Turkish and Commentary” published by Religious Affairs of Turkey. Given interpretation is: