Whenever we see wrongdoing committed in the name of Islam, we hear the cliché: “This is not real Islam!”
However, nobody properly manifests “Real Islam” in the light of its original resource, the Quran.
“Sharia law” in some radical so-called Islamic countries is mistaken for God’s commands. What is currently called “sharia law” in the world consists of the comments, inferences, or judgments of certain scholars on Quranic verses. Unfortunately, there are fundamental mistakes in these laws because those comments or inferences are not made in accordance with the Hikmat (the Wisdom), which is the method of understanding the Qur’an described by God in the Qur’an. Therefore, the expression “sharia law” used worldwide refers mostly to the laws designed by human beings rather than God.
Another controversy is that the attitude and beliefs of Muslims are mistaken for the rulings of Islam, though they are not in the Qur’an. Therefore, misinformation and prejudice about Islam prevail in the world.
Here, we put the effort into giving a summary of the lifestyle ordained in the Qur’an, which is the most adequate one for all human beings because it was designed according to human nature by their Creator:
WHAT ARE THE CRITERIA TO DISTINGUISH THE TRUTH FROM FALSEHOOD REGARDING THE MEANINGS OF QUR’ANIC VERSES?
You can say: “There are hundreds of Quran translations and interpretations, some of which contradict others. Which one should we follow? How can we know that the information below is correct?”
Throughout history, many mistakes and wrong judgments have been made in the name of Islam. This is because scholars assume themselves to be authorized to explain the Quran. However, it is God Who has explained the Quran by providing the details of verses within other verses. So He has made the Qur’an a self-explanatory Book, and He explained the Quran Himself. We are only allowed to obtain His explanations using the method He has taught in the Qur’an:
“Alif, Lam, Ra. This is a Book whose verses have been made decisive, and in the meantime have been explained in detail by the One Who judges correctly and is All-Aware; so that you shall not be the servants of any other than God. (Oh, Muhammad, say to people:) Indeed, I am the one who warns you with this Book and gives glad tidings to you from It.” (Hud 11:1-2)
This method requires bringing together all the verses relevant to a certain matter. When all the necessary pieces are there, the rulings in the verses become clear, just like the picture on a complete puzzle.
God calls this method of obtaining His explanations “science : علم” in the Quran. The following link provides extensive information about this science:
Without this method, every alleged scholar can make his own explanations and ascribe his words to God. But if we follow the method God has described in the Quran while we study on a subject from the Quran, we can easily see which interpretation or judgment is correct on that matter. The Quran provides us with certain criteria to distinguish the truth from falsehood “so that we shall not be the servants of any other than God”.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF GOD?
There are two types of signs related to God:
The words of God in divine books are signs sent down by God. We call them “verses”.
And all beings in the universe are signs created by God. We call them “creation” or “nature”.
The upright religion is naturally known to every human being who was not corrupted because every human being is also a sign of God. Indeed, the human can understand that the Quran is God’s word by interrelating Quranic verses to the signs they see in themselves and the environment:
“We will show them Our signs in the environment and within themselves until it becomes manifest to them that this (Qur’an) is the truth.” (Fussilat 41:53)
We, as human beings created by God, are also signs of God and persist in being an untainted sign of God as long as we protect ourselves from corruption by refraining from the acts that God prohibits or does not recommend.
HOW IS HUMANKIND DIFFERENT THAN OTHER CREATURES?
God grants human beings three abilities that other creatures do not have. This happens when God breathes the soul into the body which has reached a certain developmental stage in the mother’s womb:
“Then God set its equilibrium (as of its organs) and breathed into him from His spirit. Thus, He made for you listening, foresight, and hearts that make decisions. How little you fulfill your duties!” (As-Sajda 32:9)
The verse above is usually mistranslated as “He made for you hearing, eyesight and hearts”, but having hearing, eyesight, and heart (as an organ of the body or as the source of feelings) is not exclusive to human beings. Animals also have them. Yet, there are huge differences between the attributes of animals and human beings because of the abilities God has granted humans by breathing from His spirit. Human does not only hear but also chooses what to listen to, does not only see but also has the ability to foresee what may happen as a result of a certain act, does not only have feelings but also has the ability to make a decision by evaluating the correct information in their minds in correlation with their feelings. It is usually thought that it is the brain that makes decisions, but we all know that people do not always listen to the judgments of their minds. Although their brain tells them what is right and wrong, they can make other decisions at their own will.
In Arabic, integration of the mind and heart is called “lubb” ; and people who have this integrity are called “ul’ul albab” in the Quran:
“Those who listen to all that is said, and follow the best of it – it is they who God has approved to be on His guidance. It is they who are the people of integrity!” (az-Zumar 39:18).
The translation of “ul’ul albab” as “people of integrity” is also in compliance with the definition of “integrity” in English. Integrity requires the mind to distinguish what is moral, and the heart (soul) to make the decision in order to behave accordingly. According to the set of verses related to this subject, the heart makes decisions in coordination with the mind, listening, and foresight (al-A’raf 7:179, al-Hajj 22:46).
DOES THE HUMAN HAVE FREE WILL, OR IS IT ALL DESTINY?
The abilities mentioned above are human’s basic tools in this worldly life because human beings need them to be able to make their choices and live accordingly using the free will God granted to them:
“We have created humankind out of a white pearl-shaped fertilized egg. Then, We have given them the abilities of listening and foresight because We will be putting them through a tough test. We have shown them the right path. They either follow it or ignore it, thus becoming ignorer (kafir).” (al-Insan 76:2-3)
These abilities are not granted to use arbitrarily. They cause us to be held responsible:
“Do not blindly follow anything that is unknown to you! Since you have the ability to listen, foresight, and heart that makes decisions, you are held responsible for what you follow.” (al-Isra 17:36)
The verses whose meanings were distorted in the Quran translations are usually alleged to refute free will and promote fatalism. It is strange that people could fall into the trap of fatalism in a religion where God decrees “human has only that for which he strives (an-Najm 53:39)”.
Fatalism or predeterminism take their roots in assigning a distorted meaning to the most frequently used and fundamental verb “شاء : shaae” in the Quran. For further details, please read the following article: http://www.islamandquran.org/research/false-roots-of-fatalism-in-islam-destiny-and-nature.html
As we mentioned above, God has shown the right path and informed people of the consequences of their choices in His divine books. People will be rewarded or punished in the afterlife according to their choices in the world. God decrees about the day of judgment:
“Be mindful of such a day when no one will be rewarded or punished instead of anyone else, nor shall standing by someone be accepted, nor shall any compensation be taken from anyone, nor shall anyone be helped.” (al-Baqarah 2:48)
Therefore, protecting oneself by being mindful of God and the Hereafter is frequently reminded and recommended in the Qur’an. If we choose to abide by the Qur’an and to keep it as our reference book, we will surely be on the right path.
IS HUMAN SINFUL AT BIRTH?
In nature, everything is originally untainted and pure. As human beings were also created in accordance with nature, every newborn is also pure and innocent. When we consider divine scriptures, we see that none of God’s verses directly address the children. That clearly means: children are not liable towards God until they reach a certain age. Their parents or guardians are responsible to teach them what God ordains and forbids until they reach puberty. Then, when they reach puberty, they become responsible for complying with God’s commands and prohibitions by themselves. So, not only a newborn but also a child who has not yet reached puberty is innocent:
“God has brought you out of your mothers´ wombs; you knew nothing then. He has granted you the ability to listen, foresight and hearts that make decisions, so that you may fulfill your duties.” (an-Nahl 16:78)
Furthermore, the almighty God decrees that nobody bears another person’s burden:
“No burden-bearer can bear another one’s burden. If someone weighed down calls for help to bear his load, none of it will be borne for him, even by his closest relative.” (al-Fatir 35:18)
“That no burden-bearer can bear another one’s burden.” (an-Najm 53:38)
Obviously, nobody is born sinful. Besides, what is the point of having free will if we will be held responsible for a sin we didn’t commit and whose consequences we do not want to bear?
WHAT IS RELIGION?
God has created humankind in a way that they can live in harmony with nature. People can disrupt this harmony unless they live a principled life. Indeed, the physical, chemical, and biological laws that apply in nature -which are laws of nature-, as well as unchanging moral principles regarded as the basis of human conduct -which is natural law – have all been established by God. Compliance with this body of rulings is the debt we owe to God. The Arabic word “diyn” which means “religion” is, therefore, a word from the root “dayn” which means “debt”. God calls this body of laws “fitra” in the Qur’an, which can be translated as “natural order”:
“So set your face duly and steadily to that religion, the rules that apply to all beings (the fitra) set by God. He has created humankind in compliance with it. There is nothing to substitute for what God creates. That is the upright religion, but most people do not know.” (Ar-Rum 30:30)
That means religion is not merely a belief system, but it is the prescription for living a physically and mentally healthy life in harmony with nature.
WHAT IS ISLAM?
The people who protect themselves from corruption by being mindful of God follow the best possible way throughout their lives. They do not fear anything other than God, and they do not grieve because they have already done what is best and submitted themselves to God Who makes the best return for everything and who brings things to the best end (al-Kahf 18:44). They also attain self-confidence and inner peace, as well as being in peace with society. God decrees about such people:
“Nay! Whoever submits themselves to God while they are in a kind manner, their reward resides in the presence of their Master. They neither fear nor grieve.” (Al-Baqarah 2:112)
“O, Children of Adam! When messengers telling you of My signs/verses come to you from among yourselves, for those who refrain from doing wrong and reform themselves, there will be no fear, nor will they grieve.” (al-A’raf 7:35)
When we read the verses above, it is no wonder that the word Islam, which is of the root “سلم : silm”, has the meaning “submission”. All of the prophets, from Adam to Muhammad, were people who had submitted themselves to God:
“Do you say that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and their descendants were Jews or Christians? Say (to them): “Do you know better, or does God?” Who is more wrong-doing than he who conceals a truth which has been shown to him by God? God is never heedless of what you are doing.” (Al-Baqarah 2:140)
“Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian. He was an upright person who submitted himself to God. “ (Al-e Imran 3:67)
In Arabic, “a person who submits himself to God” is literally called a “Muslim”. Therefore, Islam has been the first and the only religion over the globe since the creation of humankind, and all prophets ever were Muslims.
CAN WE FORCE PEOPLE TO CONVERT TO ISLAM?
Faith is confidence or trust in a person or thing . The essence of religion is faith in God, and the basis of faith is the approval of the heart. Nobody gains confidence or trust in anything they are forced to because the heart does not approve of it. The heart is the inner world of human beings, where they are fully free. Not even the most authoritative regimes can succeed in making someone believe or trust in something/someone while the heart is unwilling. All that can be done to a person under coercion would be making him/her say or do things that they do not actually want to, thus causing hypocrisy, which is an attitude severely criticized in the Qur’an. The 256th verse of Surah Al-Baqarah emphasizes that there is no room for coercion in religion:
“There can not be any type of coercion in religion. Facts are made distinct from fiction. Whoever rejects the transgressors and trusts in God, they certainly have held onto the firmest handle, which never breaks. God is all-listening, all-knowing.” (al-Baqarah 2:256)
This verse manifests the main principle that must be valid in a real Islamic country: No coercion in religion!
Nobody is allowed to force anyone to comply with God’s commands, not even Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In the Quran, God decrees addressing Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): “We know well what they say. You are not a dictator over them. So, inform them of the Quran whoever fears My promise (that the Day of Judgment and Hereafter are the truth).” (Qaf 50:45)
According to this, nobody is allowed to dictate any type of belief or practice to anyone. The only thing to do is to communicate the Quran verses to people in their own language so that they can understand God’s message and make their own choices.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) never forced people to fast, pray, cover their hair, or perform any other type of religious practice. Indeed he said: “Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended” .
So, a real Islamic law has no room for dictating beliefs or practices to people. If anyone tries to dictate any kind of religious practice to a people, what he/she will get will be a community of hypocrites. Having hypocrites in a nation is far more dangerous for believers than having honest nonmuslim groups.
We had mentioned that the upright religion is the combination of natural law and the laws of nature. Everybody is free to choose their own lifestyle as long as it does not affect anybody else’s life or corrupt the natural equilibrium in society and the environment.
WHY IS PUBERTY THE MILESTONE OF RESPONSIBILITY?
“And when your Master took their offspring from the backs (dorsum) of children of Adam and made them testify about themselves: “Am I not your Master?” They said, “Yes, we testify.” Thus you cannot say on the Day of Rising, “We were unaware of this.”
Nor can you say, “It was our fathers who joined others before, and we were their descendants who came after them; will you destroy us for what the vain doers did?”
And thus We elaborate the signs so that they may return.” (Al-A’raf 7:172-174)
This is the incident that occurs when human clearly recognizes and admits the existence and oneness of God. The verse states that this happens when the offspring of the children of Adam is taken from their backs (dorsum).
Human makes observations even when a child and begins to notice that all beings have an owner and creator. Then he/she asks many questions to the people around him. In the end, he/she comprehends that the owner of all beings is God. During his/her observations, it is as if God is asking: “Am I not your Master?”
And he/she replies firmly: “Yes, you are my Master and I testify to this.”
“Offspring being taken from human’s back” is having the seeds that reproduce humans. This is the stage when he/she is able to have a child, namely puberty. The oath being taken at that stage means that human makes a firm decision at that time. Since observations are carried on until death, similar incidents recur. Therefore, every human comprehends and bears witness that God exists and is one, and He is the creator of all beings, and there are no equals to Him. Even a person who has no knowledge of divine books can reach this conclusion.
Yet, any person who reads the Quran can also comprehend that this Book is from God (see 41:53), and therefore they bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of God.
Notice that this testimony has exactly the same meaning as “Kalima Shahada”:
“I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the servant and Messenger of God.”
So, we acknowledge the meaning of Kalima Shahada frequently, beginning at the age of puberty. This is why puberty is the milestone for being held responsible towards God.
WHAT IS IN THE QUR’AN ABOUT OTHER DIVINE BOOKS?
The Quran attests confirmation to the previous holy Books and reserves the fundamentals of their content. For this reason, it is necessary to believe in their fundamentals:
“He has sent down to you the Book which includes the whole truth and confirms the previous ones. He had also sent down the Torah and the Gospel.” (Al-e Imran 3:3)
The verses below express that some of the rulings in previous books were maintained in the Quran as is and some rulings were sent down in an alleviated form. The almighty God decrees:
“If We supersede a verse or cause it to be forgotten, we bring a better one or an equivalent one. Do you not know that God is the establisher of the measure of all things?” (Al-Baqarah 2:106)
“He has ordained for you that religion which He commended unto Noah, and that which We sent down to you (Muhammad), and that which We commended unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Keep up the religion and be not divided therein. ” (Ash-Shura 42:13)
The following verse also informs that the Qur’an includes the messages that were sent to the previous communities:
“Or have they adopted other deities, placing them between themselves and Him? Say: “Produce your proof! This is the message of those with me and the message of those before me.” But most of them do not know the truth, so they turn away.” (Al-Anbiya 21:24)
For further information on the relation of confirmation between divine books, please see:
To see an example of “supersession of a command”, please read:
ARE THE TORAH AND THE GOSPEL CORRUPTED?
Most Islamic scholars do not recognize the Torah or the Gospel as divine books, although the Quran repeats in several verses that the Torah and the Bible that are with us still include guidance and light:
“They did not duly appraise God with His true appraisal when they said, “God has not sent down anything to any human being.” Say, “Who sent down the Book that Moses brought as a light and guidance for humankind, which you make into parchments that you display while concealing much (of it)? You and your forefathers were taught that which you knew not (before it).” Say, “God (sent it down),” then leave them to play at their vain discourse”. (al-An’am 6:91)
Torah was the book according to which former prophets judged the Jews:
“We have sent down the Torah containing guidance and Light. The prophets who had submitted themselves (to God) used to judge those who were Jews by means of it, and (so did) those devoted to their Master and scholars, because of what they sought to observe from God´s book.” (al-Ma’idah 5:44)
God granted the Gospel to Jesus and also taught him the Torah (Al-e Imran 3:48) because the Gospel did not abrogate but rather confirmed most of the rulings in the Torah, and alleviated some of them:
“We had Jesus, the son of Mary, follow in their footsteps in order to confirm what had come before him from the Torah and We gave him the Gospel which contains guidance and Light, to confirm what he already had in the Torah, and as guidance and advice for those who refrain from doing wrong.” (al-Ma’idah 5:46)
“Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them.” (Matthew 5:17)
After the revelation of the Quran, the only book according to which any judgment must be made has become the Quran:
“And unto you (O, Muhammad) have We revealed this Book (Qur’an) with the truth, confirming and protecting whatever Book was revealed before It. So, judge between them by that which God has revealed, and follow not their desires away from the truth which has come unto you. For each, We have appointed a divine law and a clear way. Had God created (otherwise), He could have made you one community. But (He did this so) that He may try you by that which He has granted to you. So race with one another in good works. To God, you will all return, and He will then inform you of that on which you disagreed. ” (al-Ma’idah 5:48)
For further details, please read:
IS THE QURAN A HISTORICAL BOOK?
God has sent the Quran to warn all the people it reaches, as well as the very first people in the era of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):
“(Oh, Muhammad!) Say: ‘What thing is the firmest as a testimony?’ Say: ‘God is a Witness for both me and you. This Quran has been sent down to me so that I may warn you with it, and anyone it may reach. Do you bear witness that there are other deities along with God?’ Say: ‘I don’t bear such witness!’ Say: ‘He is God Alone, and I am far from whatever you associate (with Him)’.” (al-An’am 6:19)
Therefore, restricting any permission or prohibition of the Quran to a certain period of history is not acceptable according to the Quran.
WAS THE QURAN SENT TO ARABS ONLY?
The Almighty God decrees:
“This (Qur’an) is a manifestation for the humankind and guidance and admonition for those who refrain from doing wrong”. (Al-e Imran 3:138)
As we understand from this verse, the Quran has been sent to all the people on the earth, not to Arabs only.
DOES THE QURAN ADDRESS MEN ONLY?
It is a common misconception that the Quran addresses men in all verses except for a couple of verses addressing women. This claim is usually based on gender-specific pronouns and verb conjugations that are claimed to refer to men only. The Quran is a book sent as an address through Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) but not to him only.
Arabic is a gender-specific language, just like French, Latvian, Hindi, etc. The Quran is an Arabic book, and the ideal examples of Arabic language rules are in the Quran. In Arabic, both a community in which men and women are mixed and a community that only consists of men are indicated with the same pronoun (hum – هم). Similarly, verbs are conjugated with a common pattern when the subjects related to that verb are all male or mixed in gender. However, there is a separate Arabic pronoun (hunna- هن) for a group of women that does not include any men.
The commands and prohibitions in the Quran are general to include both genders. Only a few certain commands relevant to women include verbs and pronouns in feminine forms. In the Quran, expressions in the 2nd plural person and the 3rd plural person are prominent. These are all in masculine forms, which include both males and females according to Arabic grammar rules. Feminine patterns are used in verses that address women only or in subjects whose object is women.
All of the Quranic verses address all humankind, except for a few gender-specific commands which can be clearly distinguished by nouns addressing that gender. The Almighty God addresses people using general words, such as, “you, who believe”, “believers”, “humankind”, and “children of Adam”. The claim about disregarding women may only arise from not knowing Arabic grammar rules
HOW TO ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH NON-MUSLIMS
The Almighty God decrees being equitable towards non-muslims, as well as towards Muslims:
“God does not forbid you from being kind and equitable to those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes. Indeed, God likes those who are equitable.” (Al-Mumtahanah 60:8)
There are three boundaries set by God about the non-muslim. If they start a battle against Muslims because of religion then Muslims must also fight against them. Otherwise, they cannot start a fight just because having seen a group of nonbelievers:
“God only forbids you from making friends of those who start a fight against you because of religion or expel you from your homes or aid in your expulsion. The ones that make friends of them are the wrongdoers.” (Al-Mumtahanah 60:9)
For further details please see:
WHAT IS JIHAD?
There is a special significance of the word “jihad” when it comes to relations with nonmuslims. Misinformation about the description and limits of “jihad”, as well as wrong edicts (fatwa) issued about jihad, is the main cause lying behind Islamophobia in this day and age.
The word ‘jihad: جهاد’ is from the root ‘جهد’ which means ‘striving’. It is a broad concept that includes several types of acts. Jihad is upholding and conveying the truth, in spite of all difficulties. That is the most important thing to do to spread a religion because the impact of truth on people cannot be compared to anything. The word “jihad” does include fighting and battle too, yet does not consist of them. The exact match of the words “battle/fight” are “qital/muqaatalah” in the Quran. A quite clear proof that jihad is not battle only is in the verse below:
“So do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them (jaahidhum) with this (Qur’an) a great striving.” (Al-Furqan/The Criterion 25:52)
This is a bilateral strive. One side strives to suppress the truth you mention, and you strive against them to reveal the truth and convey the message of the Qur’an. This is the essence of jihad.
The aim of conveying Islam is not to kill people, but to eliminate the wrong beliefs inside them, and save them from God’s eternal punishment by letting them learn the truth.
Let’s see the following command about ‘jihad’:
“And strive (jaahadu) for God in a manner worthy of that striving. He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. (It is) the religion of your father, Abraham.” (Al-Hajj/ The Pilgrimage 22:78)
We have no single clue that Prophet Abraham (PBUH) ever fought or had a battle against anyone. However, he strove against his people to withhold them from the religion and wrong beliefs of their ancestors. We know also from verse 3:67 that the religion of Abraham was Islam, too. Considering the verse above, we can be sure that jihad is not equal to fighting, though it may include fighting when required. The matter “when?” is explained in verses 60:8-9 in the article below:
As additional reading:
SHOULD DISBELIEVERS, INFIDELS, OR APOSTATES BE KILLED?
The verse below is proof that due to apostasy, nobody would be killed during Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) lifetime. Otherwise, the people mentioned in the verse would not even dare act as stated in it:
“A group of the Experts in the Book says: “At the beginning of the day (say that you) believe in what has been sent down to those who believe, and at the end of the day reject it (become kafir). Perhaps they also return (from their belief).” (Al-e Imran 3:72)
Thus, we have to say that nobody can ever be killed for this reason in any era. Indeed, the only case when killing a human being can come into question is when that person kills another human being for no rightful reason:
“And do not kill any soul which God has made inviolable, except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly – We have given his/her protector the authority, but let him not exceed limits in taking life. Indeed, he has been helped.” (Al-Isra 17:33).
For further details about the punishment of apostasy, please read the following article:
DOES BLASPHEMY JUSTIFY AGGRESSION TOWARDS NON-MUSLIMS?
Blasphemy does not justify aggression or attack against non-muslims. Indeed, God already informs Muslims of the fact that they will hear blasphemous words from them:
“It is for sure that; you will be put to a hard test in the matters of your possessions and lives, and you will frequently hear discomforting words from those who were granted the Book before you and from those who interpose others between themselves and God. If you persevere by refraining from doing wrong (you will succeed in the test). Yet, this is a matter of strong determination.” (Al-e Imran 3:186)
In the case of blasphemy, all we need to do is observe the commandments in God’s verses in a determined manner. Please read the writing below for further details:
HOW SHOULD MARRIAGE BE ACCORDING TO THE QURAN?
Marriage is one of the most important milestones in a person’s life. It is enough to improve and enhance one’s life as well as to cause suffering. Therefore God attaches great importance to marriage, divorce, and the rights and responsibilities of men and women in marriage. Marriage is made to find peace, love, and happiness:
“Among His signs is (the fact) that He has created spouses for you from among yourselves so that you may find peace and comfort with them. He has planted affectionate love and grace between you; in that are signs for a group of people who reflect.” (ar-Rum 30:21)
Marriage and helping other people to marry are encouraged in the Quran:
“And wed the singles among you and those who are fit (for marriage) among your male and female captives. If they are poor, God fulfills their needs out of His favor. God has ample means. He is all-knowing.” (an-Noor 24:32)”
The most significant issue about marriage is choosing a spouse. As we know, it is usually men who are nominees and women who make the last decision to marry. According to verse 24:33, no girl/woman can be prevented from marrying a person of her choice, as long as that man is also willing and eligible to be married according to the criteria determined in the Qur’an. For the full list of these criteria, please see: http://www.islamandquran.org/fatwas/what-are-the-conditions-of-marriage.html
The topics in the article above must be investigated by the supervisor of the girl who shall marry. This is why the supervision of women is a prerequisite of marriage. For further detail about supervision in marriage, please see http://www.islamandquran.org/fatwas/supervision-in-marriage.html
Marriage is a “solemn covenant” that women take from men:
“How can you take it (the Mehr you had given her) back when you have had intercourse with each other, and they have taken a solemn covenant from you?” (an-Nisa 4:21)
As additional reading: https://www.islamandquran.org/fatwas/mehr.html
IS POLYGAMY THE NORM IN ISLAM?
The issue of polygamy, which rather must be called “limited polygyny”, has been an argument used against Islam very often. Those who attempt to defame Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) always draw attention to his polygamous lifetime which lasted almost 10 years but they never mention his first monogamous marriage with Khadija (RA) which lasted 25 years during the youngest period of his married life, between the ages 25 and 50. His multiple marriages, though, had special reasons for each of his wives. Details are in the article: https://www.islamandquran.org/fatwas/marriages-of-prophet-muhammad.html
Monogamy is the recommended lifestyle in the Quran, but limited polygyny is not prohibited either because it has been and still may be an appropriate solution to some social issues during the course of time. The verse relevant to “limited polygyny” in the Quran is:
“If you fear that you might not be able to act rightfully towards the orphans, then marry from among other women you like, two, three, or four. If you fear that you can not maintain justice, marry only one (free) woman or a captive woman. This way, it is less likely that you do wrong.” (an-Nisa 4:3)
For a detailed explanation please refer to: https://www.islamandquran.org/research/polygamy-in-the-quran-and-in-the-modern-day.html
ARE CHILD MARRIAGES PERMISSIBLE IN ISLAM?
The fundamental condition of marriage according to the Quran is having attained maturity. Maturity is different from puberty in the sense it is described in the Quran:
“Test the orphans extensively until they reach marriageable age. Then if you perceive maturity (rushd : رُشد) in them, release their properties to them. ” (An-Nisa/ The Women 4:6)
The verse means children must be tested from time to time in various ways to see if they have the ability to manage their wealth. This is what we call “standing on one’s own feet” today. It is obvious that a person must be trained well before being put to such a test. Through this verse, we see that parents or guardians of children must train them in a way to assure that they can manage their own wealth, thus standing on their own feet. This definition of maturity presented in the Qur’an is also the description of maturity in practice today.
Though the age may vary, there is no doubt that having attained maturity occurs after puberty. Maturity is a prerequisite of marriage because marriage brings along many responsibilities which only a mature person can undertake. Being able to manage money is an evaluable criterion regarding maturity. For further evidence about the age of marriage according to the Quran, please see the following link:
When we consider this and the other conditions mentioned in the Quran, child marriages are out of possibility.
DO WOMEN HAVE TO OBEY THEIR HUSBANDS IN MARRIAGE?
In Islam, obedience is required to “God and His Messenger” (Nisa 4/13,14,69,80; Ma’idah 92) since the messenger exactly conveys God’s words. Both men and women have to be obedient to God. The verse below manifests it as it repeats all the virtuous qualities of humans for men and women respectively:
“The men who are submissive to God (Muslim men) and the women who are submissive to God (Muslim women), and the believing men and the believing women, and the obedient men and the obedient women…” (Al-Ahzab 33:35)
If a woman is supposed to obey her husband, then who are men supposed to obey in this verse? Their wives, maybe? Nay! They both have to obey God, of course.
For further details please read:
CAN A HUSBAND BEAT HIS WIFE ACCORDING TO VERSE 4:34?
Husband and wife are commanded to get along with each other according to “ma’ruf”. This command is given to men in the Qur’an:
“And get along with women according to ma’ruf (the known terms).” (An-Nisa 4:19)
“Ma’ruf” means something “known well”. That knowledge sources either from the Qur’an or from the traditions that are not against the rulings in the Qur’an. The word “ma’ruf” is used in the Qur’an to mean all the good things that believers must encourage one another to do (3:104,114; 9:71, 112; 11:116, 22:41). So, men are required to get along with their wives in the best possible way according to this verse. Apparently, beating women cannot be included in “ma’ruf”.
In every family, husband, wife, and even children may oppose one another. Each of them may covet one another’s rights, rebel against each other, cause discord, or even be hostile towards each other. That is natural. God gives the necessary directions to be happy and in peace, even in such cases:
“Oh, you who believe, some of your spouses and children may be hostile towards you, so beware of them! Yet if you pardon and start with a clean slate and forgive them, then surely God is the Most Forgiving, the Most Beneficent.” (at-Taghabun 64:14)
That means familial issues, even to the extent of hostility, are not resolved through violence, but through mutual understanding and forgiveness. Verse an-Nisa 4:34 that is alleged to be the command to beat women is in fact, about women’s single-sided right to divorce their husbands.
Women could easily use this right during the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his Companions. Unfortunately, wrong traditional Islamic rulings deprived women of the right to divorce and furthermore granted men the right to beat their wives by misusing this verse. To learn about the details of the huge mistake that was made about verse 4:34, and to learn about the single-sided divorce right of women, please read the full article:
HOW DOES DIVORCE TAKE PLACE ACCORDING TO THE QURAN?
A marriage that does not bring along love, affection, and comfort is usually bound to end. Since marriage is a solemn agreement between two persons, ending it is as serious as marriage. Therefore, the conditions of divorce are clearly defined in the Quran. Both husband and wife have the right to divorce their spouse. Women’s divorce is subject to supervision because they receive Mehr -which is either money or other types of possessions- from their husbands upon marriage. The amount of Mehr (bridal gifts), conditions, and duration of payment are to be determined and written down during the act of marriage, where the supervisor from the bride’s family is present. This assures the protection of women’s rights. For details of single-sided divorce by men and by women, please read:
TESTIMONY OF WOMEN
The Almighty God attaches great importance to human testimony. He bears people witness even to their own beliefs (see A’raf 7:172). Therefore, he requires to have eyewitnesses during important events, such as marriage, divorce, criminal court cases, debt agreements, inheritance issues, etc.
When witnessing, it is required to be fair. Rightfulness must be taken as a basis even if to the detriment of parents, close relatives, and the wealthy. Whoever we face, it is necessary to avoid emotional behavior and to act with justice:
“You who believe, for the sake of God be constant in your devotion and bear witness rightfully. Do not let the hatred of others lead you away from justice, but adhere to justice, for that is nearer to refraining from wrongs. Refrain from doing wrong regarding God. God is well aware of all that you do.” (al-Maidah 5:8)”
Minimum requirements to fulfill a testimony are explained in verses al-Ma’idah 5:106-108 in the Quran, and there is no distinction between genders in these verses. Therefore, two reliable witnesses of any gender suffice for marriage, divorce, inheritance, Qisas (which may end in capital punishment), Sariqa (which may require amputation of a hand), or any cases other than debt agreements between people. The only special requirement is about the debt agreements mentioned in verse 282 of al-Baqara, which requires two men, or one man and two women for testimony. This relieves women of undertaking a huge burden which also has financial results. For details about women’s testimony please read:
WHY ARE THERE SO MANY SECTS? DO WE HAVE TO FOLLOW THEM?
Sects were founded in the course of time after the decease of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). They could be considered as different schools to follow while practicing certain rituals of Islam. However, the current situation in the Muslim world clearly reveals that sects mostly serve political purposes which divide Muslims. As a result of separating into different sects, Muslims adopt other identities over the identity “Muslim”.
God repeatedly disapproves of dividing the Muslims into opposing parties, sects, or groups (see 3:103, 6:159, 30:32, 42:13) and decrees that He has given the name “Muslims” to all believers:
“(…) He named you Muslims before, and in this (Quran), that the messenger may be a model to you and you be models to others. (…)” (al-Hajj 22:78)
A Muslim cannot adopt another name rather than “Muslim”. Muslims should name themselves the way God names them and keep the manner God ordains.
PRINCIPLES IN SOCIAL RELATIONS
The Qur’an, just like other divine books, sets important and universally true rules about social relations. One of the most important ones is that no human being is superior to the other due to their gender, race, lineage, nation, wealth, etc. in God’s sight. The only criterion for superiority among human beings is “taqwa”, which means “refraining from doing wrong”. Taqwa is of the root “وقي : wa-qa-ya” which means “to protect something from anything that may cause harm”. Therefore, a person who protects himself/herself from any type of corruption by refraining from doing wrong has taqwa. Such people are superior to other human beings in God’s sight:
“Oh humankind, We have created you from a male and female, and we have set you up as nations and tribes so that you may recognize one another. In God’s sight, the most honored of you are those who farthest refrain from doing wrong. God is all-knowing, allaware.” (al-Hujurat 49:13)
Thus, Islam can in no way be used as a justification for racism or discrimination against any group or gender of people. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had also emphasized this in his Farewell Sermon:
“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety (taqwa) and good action.”
Some of the other main principles set forth in social relations can be summarized as stated in the verses below:
“Oh, you who believe and trust in God! No group of men should ridicule the other. The ridiculed ones may, after all, be better than them. And no group of women should ridicule the other. The ridiculed ones may, after all, be better than them. Do not seek out faults of one another; do not use offensive nicknames for one another! How bad it is to call someone ‘deviant’ after he/she believes and trusts in God! Those who do not repent, by regretting and amending their bad behaviors, are wrongdoers.
Oh, you who believe and trust in God! Avoid most of the guesswork because some of the guesswork diverts you from the truth. Do not spy on one another or backbite people. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of your dead brother? No, you would hate it. Then, be mindful of God! God accepts the turnarounds (from bad deeds). He is bountiful.” (Al-Hujurat 49:11-12)
The following principle is a must to follow in order to maintain good relations among people:
“God does not like bad words to be made public unless someone has been wronged: He is all-listening and all-knowing.” (An-Nisa 4:148),
Below are some other commands. Indeed, we can see that none of God’s commands can be distinguished or prioritized over the others. All of them are full of wisdom:
“Say, ‘Come, I will recount to you what your Master has made unlawful to you: Do not associate anything with Him, and keep doing good to your parents, and do not kill your children out of the fear of poverty; We provide for you and them. And do not approach the kinds of vice– that which is apparent of them and that which is hidden. And do not kill any soul which God has made inviolable except by (legal) right. This is what God has instructed to you so that you may understand.
And do not approach the orphan’s property except in a way that is best (intending improvement) until he reaches maturity. And give full measure and weight rightfully. We do not impose upon anybody a duty but to the extent of his ability. And when you speak, be just, even if (it concerns) near kin. And fulfill the covenant of God. That then He has charged you with; haply you will remember.
And, this is My path, which is straight, so follow it; and do not follow other ways since this will separate you from My way. This has He charged you with that you may protect yourselves. ” (Al-An’am 6:151-153)
“And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and do good to parents. Whether one or both of them reach old age (while) with you, say not to them (so much as), “uff,” and don’t be unconcerned to them but speak to them generous words.
And take them under the wings of mercy and say, “My Lord, have mercy upon them as they brought me up (when I was) small.”
Your Lord is most knowing of what is inside yourselves. If you should be righteous, He will indeed forgive those who turn around (to righteousness from mistakes).
And give the relative his right, and the desperate and the traveler, but do not spend wastefully.
Indeed, those who squander wastefully are brothers of the devils, and Devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord.
And if you turn away from them awaiting mercy from your Lord, which you expect, then speak to them words that ease.
And be neither too tight-fisted nor wasteful, or you will sit by reproached and destitute.
Indeed, your Lord extends provision for whoever exerts the effort for it and complies with His measures. Indeed He is aware of (the insides) of His servants and He sees all.
And do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them and for you. Indeed, their killing is ever a great crime.
Do not approach fornication. It is definitely a shameful act and an evil way.
And do not kill the soul which God has forbidden, except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly – We have given his/her guardian the authority, but let him not exceed limits in taking life. Indeed, he has been helped.
And do not approach an orphan’s possessions until he reaches maturity, except in a way to make it better. And keep the promises you made. Indeed, promises bring responsibility.
And give full measure when you measure and weigh with a straight balance. That is good and gives the best result.
And do not blindly follow that which you have no knowledge. Indeed, the hearing, the sight, and the heart will be held responsible for it.
And do not walk upon the earth exultantly. Indeed, you will never tear the earth apart, and you will never reach the mountains in height.
All that aforementioned – evil is ever, in the sight of your Lord, disliked.
That is from what your Lord has revealed to you (O Muhammad) of wisdom. And, (O humankind), do not make up another deity besides God, or you will be thrown into Hell, reproached and rejected.” (Al-Isra 17:23-39)
THE PERTINENCE OF PUNISHMENT TO THE CRIME IN GOD’S LAW
The Almighty God decrees the punishment for an evil act:
“Whoever commits an evil shall not be requited except with its equivalent (mithl); but whoever acts righteously, whether male or female, while they are believers—such shall enter the Garden, and they will be provided for therein without account.” (Al-Ghafir 40:40)
“The requital of an evil (deed) is an equivalent evil (punishment). Whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is given by God. Indeed, He does not like the wrongdoers.” (Ash-Shura 42:40)
Let us try to understand these verses better.
In our daily lives, if a person accidentally damages property, he normally replaces the damaged ones, and this incident is called “an accident”, rather than “an evil deed”.
What if the damage was done intentionally? That is “an evil deed” and it requires a punishment. Should the punishment be replacing the damaged property only, just as in an accident?
No, because that would only be the justification of the damage as in the first case, not a punishment to the criminal who damages the property intentionally. However, if the criminal pays a compensation fee that is equivalent to the value of that property in addition to replacing that property, this would be a punishment equivalent to the misdeed he has committed.
Keeping this analogy in the mind, we can understand the punishments ordained in God’s law better.
Property and life are inviolable according to the Quran:
“You who believe, do not wrongfully consume each other’s wealth except through trade by mutual consent. Do not kill yourselves, for God is gracious to you.” (an-Nisa 4:29).
“And do not kill the soul which God has forbidden, except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly – We have given his/her protector the authority, but let him not exceed limits in taking life. Indeed, he has been helped.” (Al-Isra 17:33).
Lives and properties are under the protection of laws. Punishments in God’s laws are strictly correlated to the crimes. It is prescribed that the criminal has to recompense the victims’ losses whenever compensation applies. The equivalent of the loss is also covered by the criminal as the punishment. Yet, God advises reconciliation and forgiveness in all the cases that apply. He also promises a multiplied reward to those who forgive or reconcile.
In God’s law, punishments do not only deter but also cause the criminal to suffer an equivalent loss. So, the criminal fully understands the results of his crime. Safety of life and property is thus guaranteed by the law. Therefore, people feel safe and secure. Further details about the most controversial issues, such as Qisas, the punishments of theft and many other crimes are on the following link:
Principles about witnesses and testimony are also significant to establish justice. A person who is known to lie is not accepted as an eyewitness by jurisdiction from then on. This is a huge risk to take for a person because it means a permanent black mark on one’s reputation. So, people would have to be honest, at least, to protect their reputation.
In God’s law, the rich, the poor, the noble, or the ordinary people are always judged equally and justly. Even the governors/rulers have to submit themselves to the law of God so that they can be judged freely:
“You who believe, be maintainers of rightfulness by bearing witness for the sake of God, even if it is against yourselves, your parents, or your close relatives; whether the person is rich or poor. God is closer to them (than your closeness to them). Do not follow your own desire so that you can act justly. If you distort (the truth) or evade (testimony), (know that) God is fully aware of what you do.” (an-Nisa 4:135)
“You who believe, for the sake of God be constant in your devotion and bear witness rightfully. Do not let the hatred of others lead you away from justice, but adhere to justice, for that is nearer to refraining from wrongs. Be mindful of God: God is well aware of all that you do.” (al-Maidah 5:8)
DOESN’T THE QURAN ABOLISH SLAVERY?
In the era when the Qur’an was revealed, slavery was a common practice all over the world. The victorious side in a war could enslave a large number of war captives. A slave’s child was also considered a slave and remained so until he died or his owner freed him. Another method of enslavement was the abduction of powerless people, which is not justifiable according to the laws or practices of any era.
Muslims had their first battle in Badr. The Almighty God has sent down the verse below before this battle:
“When you meet those who ignore (in battle), smite their necks until you suppress them, and then cordon (the rest of) them off strictly; thereafter set them (the captives) free, either by an act of grace or against ransom. Do this, so that the burden of war is laid down.” (Muhammad 47:4)
Setting the captives free relieves the enemy and also prevents the justification of a new battle that could be started because of them. God, the Almighty has decreed:
“Good and evil are not equal. Repel evil with good, and the person who was your enemy becomes like an intimate friend. (Fussilat 41:34)
According to these verses, captives can never be enslaved but they can only be set free, either without requital or against ransom. That is how the Quran ended enslavement before the very first battle in the history of Islam. The verse below also reinforced the fact that all people are equivalent in God’s sight:
“Oh humankind, We have created you from a male and female, and we have set you up as nations and tribes so that you may recognize one another. In God’s sight, the most honored of you are those who farthest refrain from doing wrong. God is all-knowing, all aware.” (al-Hujurat 49:13)
To learn about the rulings on the status of captives and the immoral act of using female captives as sex slaves, please read:
PRINCIPLES ABOUT INHERITANCE
The Almighty God decrees in the Qur’an about inheritance:
“When death comes to one of you, and he/she (the deceased) leaves any properties behind, it is prescribed as a duty for those among you who are mindful of God to divide it among the parents and closest relatives according to known terms (of division). The sin is upon those who change the rates of the division after hearing this. God is all-listening, all-knowing. If the person who distributes (the inheritance) has fears about being biased towards some of the heirs or falling into error, and he/she thus reconciles the heirs, it is not considered as an error on behalf of him/her. Surely, God is forgiving and beneficent.” (al-Baqarah 2:180-182)
As we see above, the shares of inheritance are determined in the Qur’an, and it is a sin to change them. However, mistranslating the word “wasiyyah : وَصِيَّة : verbal debt admittance” as “bequest” had caused the prescribed shares in verses an-Nisa 4:11-12 to be modified. To learn more about inheritance according to the Quran and further details about controversial issues, please read:
PRINCIPLES IN BUSINESS LIFE AND ECONOMICS
Economics in a state governed according to God’s law can only be based on zakat. Interest must be absolutely forbidden in the financial system. Zakat has to be the only tax collected from the folk. It is decreed that only the rich have to pay tax. Being rich is also well-defined in Islam. Those who have more than a certain amount  of money or commodity, after having met their basic needs, are considered rich. Then, tax is collected from those who can afford and it is distributed to the needy regularly and justly. So, the basic needs of all people are met.
Money must be made of gold and silver that God created as precious metals. This naturally prevents the probability of inflation rate increase and provides a solid basis for the worth of money. In such an economy, devaluation would be out of possibility. Thus, no country could be bankrupt by any other’s hands.
In an economy where interest is forbidden, production and trade would be the only choices to make money. Therefore both production and trade are automatically encouraged. This brings along continuous growth in the market, thus improving the economy.
Those who need to borrow money can borrow it from people without interest by making written solemn agreements. Borrowing without interest is encouraged in the Quran. It is described as “loaning to God” and its reward is said to be multiplied many times by God:
“Whoever kindly gives out a loan to God, God increases its repayment multiplying by many times. God is the One Who restricts and Who expands. After all, you will be returned to His presence.” (al-Baqarah 2:245)
If the debtor cannot pay back his debt, the debtee may give it away, and the amount of debt is subtracted from the tax (zakat) of the debtee.
 According to al-Ahkaf 46/15, “the mother carries human and weans him/her in 30 months”. According to al-Baqarah 2/233 weaning takes two full years, which is 24 months. We can understand from here that the time a fetus spends in the mother’s womb as a “human being” is six months. We know that the average pregnancy period is 9 months and 10 days. That means, God breathes from His spirit into the fetus when it is 3 months and 10 days old, thus grants the fetus the special attributes of a human being. Until this stage when the spirit is breathed, the fetus cannot be called a human being.
 40 Hadith Nawawi, 1
 This is called the incident of “A-lastu bi rabbikum”. However, traditionalists attribute this incident to a time when they allege that all souls were created. This claim contradicts the verse which states that the soul is breathed into the body after the fetus is shaped (as-Sajda 32:9).
 This amount is called “nisab”: 85 grams of gold, or 595 grams of silver, or an equal amount of money or commodities”